Abstract

Silica-on-silicon erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs) fabricated by the sol-gel route are demonstrated. The preparation of stable sols is first described, with emphasis on identifying chemical routes that allow the incorporation of sufficient concentration of erbium without precipitation or gelation. Erbium-doped glasses containing various codopants, such as phosphorus, aluminum, germanium and ytterbium are formed and used in the construction of buried channel guide EDWAs. A range of optical measurements is presented, and the effects of the dopants in eliminating erbium ion quenching and improving pumping efficiency are evaluated. The best material system-Er/Yb codoped aluminophosphosilicate glass-has low background loss and a net gain of 1.1 dB/cm.

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (84)

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 µ m", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, pp. 2922-2924, 1997.

T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, M. Shimizu, Y. Ohmori and M. Kobayashi, "Guided wave laser based on erbium-doped silica planar lightwave circuit", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 334-335, 1991.

T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, K. Shuto, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi and M. Horiguchi, "Amplification in erbium-doped silica-based planar lightwave circuits", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 1818-1819, 1992.

K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, M. Oguma, M. Wada, J. Temmyo and M. Horiguchi, "Erbium-doped silica-based planar waveguide amplifier pumped by 0.98 µ m laser diodes", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 357-359, 1993.

M. Oguma, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori and M. Horiguchi, "Tunable Er-doped Y-branched waveguide laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 586-587, May 1994.

K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, M. Oguma, Y. Ohmori and M. Horiguchi, "Erbium-doped silica-based waveguide amplifier integrated with 980/1530 nm WDM coupler", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 856-857, 1994.

J. A. Bebbington, G. Barbarossa, J. R. Bonar and J. S. Aitchison, "Rare earth doped silica waveguides on Si fabricated by flame hydrolysis deposition and aerosol doping", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, pp. 337-339, 1993.

J. R. Bonar and J. S. Aitchison, "Co-doping effects in rare-earth-doped planar waveguides", Inst. Elect. Eng., Proc. Optoelectronics, vol. 143, pp. 293-297, 1996.

G. D. Maxwell, "Photosensitivity and rare earth doping in flame-hydrolysis-deposited planar silica waveguides", Proc. SPIE, vol. 2695, pp. 16-29, 1996.

K. Shuto, K. Hattori, T. Kitagawa, Y. Ohmori and M. Horiguchi, "Erbium-doped phosphosilicate glass waveguide amplifier fabricated by PECVD", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 139-141, 1993.

B. Pedersen, T. Feuchter, M. Polsen, J. E. Pedersen, M. Kristensen and R. Kromann, "High concentration erbium doped silica-on-silicon grown by plasma enhanced CVD", in Proc ECIO'95 , Delft, The Netherlands, Apr. 1995.

S. A. Guldberg-Kjaer, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, M. R. Poulsen and M. W. Sckerl, "Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 302-303, 1999.

M. W. Sckerl, S. A. Guldberg-Kjaer, C. Laurent-Lund and M. R. Poulsen, "Loss-less planar waveguide 1: 4 power splitter at 1550 nm", in Proc. ECOC'99, Nice, France, 1999, pp. 48-49.

C. E. Chryssou and C. W. Pitt, "Er3+-doped Al2 O 3 thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) exhibiting a 55-nm optical bandwidth", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 34, pp. 282-285, Feb. 1998.

M. Kawachi, "Recent progress in silica-based planar lightwave circuits", Inst. Elect. Eng., Proc. Optoelectronics, vol. 143, pp. 257-262, 1996.

Y. P. Li and C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits", Inst. Elect. Eng., Proc. Optoelectronics , vol. 143, pp. 263-280, 1996.

P. P. Herrmann and D. Wildmann, "Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold", IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. QE-19, pp. 1735-1738, Dec. 1983.

L. Weisenbach, B. J. J. Zelinski, J. O'Kelly and J. Morreale, "The influence of processing variables on the optical properties of SiO2 -TiO 2 planar waveguides", Proc. SPIE, vol. 1590, pp. 50-57, 1991.

R. L. Roncone, L. A. Weller-Brophy and B. J. J. Zelinski, "Sol-gel synthesis of planar optical waveguides and integrated components," in Ultrastructure Processing of Advanced Materials, R. Uhlmann, and D. R. Ulrich, Eds. New York: Wiley, 1992.

L. Yang, S. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong and J. Hayes, "Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides", Anal. Chem. , vol. 66, pp. 1254-1263, 1994.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli Degli Espositi, G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, "Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification", Proc. SPIE, vol. 1513, pp. 44-49, 1990.

D. J. Shaw and T. A. King, "Densification of sol-gel silica glass by laser irradiation", Proc. SPIE, vol. 1328, pp. 474-481, 1990.

F. G. Aráuji, T. Chia and L. L. Hench, "Laser densification of channel waveguides in gel-silica substrates", J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech., vol. 2, pp. 729-735, 1994.

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