Abstract

An optical electric-power sensor is presented that allows active and apparent powers to be measured simultaneously using one block of bismuth germanate (Bi4Ge3O12) crystal as sensing element, which exhibits both the Faraday effect and the Pockels effect. It is based on the fact that the polarization-related intensity of the light wave passing through the crystal can be modulated by the product signal of applied electric and magnetic fields. When load current and voltage are simultaneously applied to the sensing crystal, the instantaneous electric power signal can be directly obtained from the intensity-modulated light wave. The simultaneous measurements of active power and apparent power,as well as the direction of power flow, have been carried out in experiments. Measurement uncertainty is theoretically analyzed. The potential applications of the proposed optical electric-power sensor are also discussed.

© 2003 IEEE

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  2. R. Yao, X. Cui and C. Li, "Theoretical and experimental research on optical electric power sensing system", Proc. Chinese Soc. Electrical Engineering , vol. 19, pp. 12-14, Aug. 1999.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (26)

J. N. Blake, "Combination fiber optic current/voltage sensor", Dec. 26, 2000.

C. Li and T. Yoshino, "Simultaneous measurement of current and voltage by use of one bismuth germanate crystal", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 25, pp. 5391-5397, Sept. 2002.

V. K. Gorchakov, V. V. Kutsaenko and V. T. Potapov, "Electro-optical and magneto-optical effects in bismuth silicate crystals and optical polarization sensors using such crystals", Int. J. Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 235-250, 1990.

N. Nikogosyan, "Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials, A Handbook", Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 1997 . pp. 286-298.

A. Feldman, W. S. Brower Jr. and D. Horowitz, "Optical activity and Faraday rotation in bismuth oxide compounds", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 201-202, Mar. 1970.

A. J. Rogers, "The electrogyration effect in crystalline quartz", in Proc. Roy. Soc. London A, vol. 353, 1977, pp. 177-192.

H. Wang, W. Jia and J. Shen, "Magneto-optical Faraday rotation in Bi4Ge3O12 crystal", Acta Phys. Sinica, vol. 34, pp. 126-128, 1985.

P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, K. S. Lee, D. C. Conrad, G. W. Day and P. D. Hale, "Optical, thermo-optic, electro-optic and photo-elastic properties of bismuth germinate (Bi4Ge3O12)", Appl. Opt., vol. 35, no. 19, pp. 3562 -3569, 1996.

K. S. Lee, "Electro-optic voltage sensor: birefringence effects and compensation methods", Appl. Opt., vol. 29, no. 30, pp. 4453-4461, Oct. 1990.

J. C. Santos, M. C. Taplamacioglu and K. Hidaka, "Pockels high-voltage measurement system", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 15, pp. 8-13, Jan. 2000.

W. J. Tabor and F. S. Chen, "Electromagnetic propagation through materials possessing both Faraday rotation and birefringence: experiments with ytterbium orthoferrite", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 2760-2765, Jun. 1969.

C. Li and X. Cui, "Pulse-controlled polarization converter and its application", Acta Photon. Sinica, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 929-934, Oct. 1997.

W. Z. Fam, "A Poynting vector transducer for transmission line monitoring and protection", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 9, pp. 378-383, Jan. 1994.

J. Zhao, J. Chen and S. Qiao, "Optical method for measuring electric power", in Proc. SPIE Automated Optical Inspection for Industry , 1996, pp. 589-593.

R. Yao, X. Cui and C. Li, "Theoretical and experimental research on optical electric power sensing system", Proc. Chinese Soc. Electrical Engineering , vol. 19, pp. 12-14, Aug. 1999.

Y. Li, C. Li and T. Yoshino, "Optical electric-power sensing system using Faraday and Pockels cells", Appl. Opt., vol. 40, no. 31, pp. 5738 -5741, Nov. 2001.

C. Li and X. Cui, "Electro-optic crystal multiplier and its application", Chinese J. Lasers, vol. A24, pp. 1079-1084, Dec. 1997 .

C. Li, X. Cui and T. Yoshino, "Measurement of ac electric power based on dual transverse Pockels effect", IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 50, pp. 1375-1380, Oct. 2001.

Y. Fujii and J. Hayashi, "Electric voltage, current and power sensor by using one crystal", Rev. Laser Eng., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 36-42, Apr. 1984.

X. Cui and C. Li, "Optical propagation property of BSO crystal under simultaneously applied electric and magnetic fields and its application in the electric power sensor", Chinese J. Lasers, vol. A24, pp. 347-351, Apr. 1997.

H. Miyashita and Y. Fujii, "Measurement of current, voltage and power using single quartz crystal", in Tech. Dig. 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conf., May 2002, pp. 491-494.

A. J. Rogers, "Method for simultaneous measurement of current and voltage on high voltage lines using optical techniques", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 123, pp. 957-960, 1976.

K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshita, N. Mikami and Y. Ida, "Fiber-optic current and voltage sensors using a Bi12GeO20 single crystal", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-1, pp. 93-97, Mar. 1983 .

Y. Kuroda, Y. Abe, H. Kuwahara and K. Yoshinaga, "Field test of fiber-optic voltage and current sensors applied to gas insulated substation", in Proc. SPIE Fiber Optic Sensors, vol. 586, Jan 1985, pp. 30- 37.

T. Sawa, K. Kurosawa, T. Kaminishi and T. Yokota, "Development of optical instrument transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 5, Apr. 1990.

N. Rajkumar, V. Jagadeesh Kumar and P. Sankaran, "Fiber sensor for the simultaneous measurement of current and voltage in a high-voltage system", Appl. Opt. , vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1225-1228, 1993.

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