Abstract

In this paper, we report a novel long-period fiber grating (LPFG) fabricated by using a new writing technique that is mainly based on the thermal shock effect of focused high-frequency CO2 laser pulses at several kilohertz. A number of unique characteristics of such a LPFG, such as bend, torsion, and transverse load, are observed by experiments,for the first time, to our knowledge. Based on these unique features, a novel bend-insensitive LPFG sensor that could solve the problem of cross-sensitivity between bend and other measurands, a novel torsion sensor that can realize absolute measurement of twist rate, and a load sensor that can achieve simultaneous measurement of transverse load and temperature using a single LPFG element are proposed and demonstrated. These unique features of the LPFGs are mainly due to the asymmetrical distribution of the refractive index on the cross section of the LPFG induced by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses.

© 2003 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.

C. Y. Lin, L. A. Wang and G. W. Chern, "Corrugated long period fiber gratings as strain, torsion and bending sensors", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1159-1168, Aug. 2001.

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (13)

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada and R. Yamauchimk, "Characteristics of long period fiber grating utilizing periodic stress relaxation under high temperature environment", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3746, 1999, pp. 385-388.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of resonance in curved CO2 -laser-induced long-period fiber gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1354-1355, 2000.

T. W. MacDougall, S. Pilevar, C. W. Haggans and M. A. Jackson, "Generalized expression for the growth of long period gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1449-1451, Oct. 1998.

V. Lemarquand, "Synthesis study of magnetic torque sensors", IEEE Trans. Mag., vol. 35, pp. 4503-4510, Nov. 1999 .

Y. Liu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Fiber optic sensors with high transverse strain sensitivity based on long-period gratings in B/Ge co-doped fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 661-662, 1999.

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu and B. M. Yu, "Characteristics of novel long -period fiber gratings written by focused high-frequency CO2 laser pulses", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4581, 2001, pp. 327-333.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii and D. C. Johnson, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides application to reflection filter fabrication", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 647-649, 1978.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gayiord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Konsinski, S. C. Mettler and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fiber grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 302-303, 1998.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams and A. D. Kersey, "Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1223-1225, Sept. 1996.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang and S. T. Vohra, "Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 1773-1775, 1998.

S. L. Huang, W. M. Chen and K. D. Bennett, "Optical sensors for smart civil infrastructures", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3555, 1998, pp. 266-271.

E. Udd, Ed. Fiber Optic Smart Structures, New York: Wiley, 1995.

Y. J. Rao, "Review article: In-fiber Bragg grating sensors", Meas. Sci. & Technol., vol. 8, pp. 355-375, 1997.

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