Abstract

We describe the first wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier (T-FRA) for application to seamless ultra-large-capacity dense wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems. First, we confirmed that the Raman scattering characteristics of the tellurite-based fiber has so large a gain coefficient and Stokes shift that we can achieve a wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier with a shorter fiber length than when using silica-based fiber. Second, we investigated the small signal gain and the signal transmission characteristics for a high gain and high output power operation with a single-stage amplifier. Focusing on double Rayleigh scattering, we compared the high gain limit of tellurite-and silica-based fibers. We then studied the impact of nonlinear effects by measuring the bit error rate (BER) when using a two-stage amplifier with a high output power of 18.8 dBm in which we simultaneously amplified eight channel signals in the L-band located on the ITU 100-GHz grid. Finally, we designed a wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier with a multiwavelength band pumping scheme. We constructed this amplifier with a tellurite-based fiber only 250 m in length pumped by four-wavelength-channel laser diodes, and it provided a 160-nm bandwidth with a gain of over 10 dB and a noise figure below 10 dB from 1490 to 1650 nm. We also measured the BER to confirm the transmission characteristics of the amplifier for single channel operation over the whole signal wavelength range of 160 nm. We thus confirmed that the amplifier could be employed in ultra-high-capacity WDM systems.

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida and Y. Ohishi, "Gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1244 -1246, Sept. 1998.
  2. J. Kani, K. Hattori, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori and K. Oguchi, "Triple-wavelength-band WDM transmission over cascaded dispersion-shifted fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1506-1508, Nov. 1998.
  3. K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273 × 40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment", in OFC'01, 2001, paper PD24.
  4. F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, S. Chernikov, V. Havard, C. Heerdt, A. Hugbart, W. Idler, L. Labrunie, P. Le Roux, S. A. E. Lewis, A. Pham, L. Piriou, R. Uhel and J.-P. Blondel, "4.16 Tbit/s (104 × 40 Gbit/s) unrepeatered transmission over 135 km in combined S + C + L bands with 104-nm total bandwidth", in ECOC'01,, Mo. F.3.4.
  5. Y. Emori and S. Namiki, "100 nm bandwidth flat gain Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by 12-wavelength-channel WDM high power laser diode", in OFC'99, 1999, paper PD19.
  6. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Multi-wavelength pumped silica-fiber Raman amplifiers", in OAA'99, 1999.
  7. H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. I. Suzuki and K. Aida, "75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplification with erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers and distributed Raman amplifiers in 9 × 2.5-Gb/s WDM transmission experiment", in IOOC/ECOC'97, 1997, paper PDP 73.
  8. M. Nissov, C. R. Davidson, K. Rottwitt, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Innis and N. S. Bergano, "100 Gb/s (10 × 10 Gb/s) WDM transmission over 7200 km using distributed Raman amplification", in IOOC/ECOC'97, 1997, paper PDP 73.
  9. N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, H. Masuda and M. Koga, "32 × 10 Gb/s distributed Raman amplification transmission with 50-GHz channel spacing in the zero-dispersion region over 640 km of 1.55-µm dispersion shifted fiber", in IOOC/OFC'99, 1999, paper PDP 9.
  10. J. Kani, M. Jinno and K. Oguchi, "Fiber Raman amplifier for 1520 nm band WDM transmission", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 1745-1747, 1998.
  11. H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K.-I. Suzuki and K. Aida, "1.65 µm band fiber Raman amplifier pumped by wavelength-tunable broad-linewidth light source", in ECOC'98, vol. 3, Madrid, Spain,Sept. 1998, pp. 139-141.
  12. T. Tsuzaki, M. Kakui, M. Hirano, M. Onishi, Y. Nakai and Nishimura, "Broadband discrete fiber Raman amplifier with high differential gain operating over 1.65 µm -band", in OFC'2001 , Anaheim, CA, 2001, MA3,. pp. 1-3.
  13. J. Bromage, J.-C. Bouteiller, H. J. Thiele, K. Brar, C. Headley, L. E. Nelson, Y. Qian, J. Demarco, S. Stulz, L. Leng, B. Zhu and B. J. Eggleton, "S-band all-Raman amplifiers for 40 × 10 Gb/s transmission over 6 × 100 km of nonzero dispersion fiber", in OFC2001 , Anaheim, CA, 2001, PD4,. pp. 1-3.
  14. A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman and H. Fevrier, "Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/s in S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifier", in OFC2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001,PD39,. pp. 1-3.
  15. H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth silica-fiber Raman amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, May 1999.
  16. T. Miyamoto, T. Tsuzaki, T. Okuno, M. Kakui, M. Hirano, M. Onishi and M. Shigematsu, "Raman amplification over 100 nm-bandwidth with dispersion and dispersion slope compensation for conventional single mode fiber", in OFC'02, vol. 66, 2002, TuJ7.
  17. A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato and M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wideband tellurite-based Raman fiber amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1442-1443, 2001.
  18. H. H. Kee, C. R. S. Fludger and V. Handerek, "Statistical properties of polarization dependent gain in fiber Raman amplifiers", in OFC'02, vol. 180, 2002,WB2.
  19. C. T. Marvin and T. Baak, "Raman spectra of some low-expansion glasses", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 58, pp. 1459-1461, 1968.
  20. A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida and Y. Ohishi, "Low noise figure broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 887-888, 1998.
  21. H. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stents, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers", IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 159-161, 1998.

Other (21)

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida and Y. Ohishi, "Gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1244 -1246, Sept. 1998.

J. Kani, K. Hattori, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori and K. Oguchi, "Triple-wavelength-band WDM transmission over cascaded dispersion-shifted fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1506-1508, Nov. 1998.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273 × 40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment", in OFC'01, 2001, paper PD24.

F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, S. Chernikov, V. Havard, C. Heerdt, A. Hugbart, W. Idler, L. Labrunie, P. Le Roux, S. A. E. Lewis, A. Pham, L. Piriou, R. Uhel and J.-P. Blondel, "4.16 Tbit/s (104 × 40 Gbit/s) unrepeatered transmission over 135 km in combined S + C + L bands with 104-nm total bandwidth", in ECOC'01,, Mo. F.3.4.

Y. Emori and S. Namiki, "100 nm bandwidth flat gain Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by 12-wavelength-channel WDM high power laser diode", in OFC'99, 1999, paper PD19.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Multi-wavelength pumped silica-fiber Raman amplifiers", in OAA'99, 1999.

H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. I. Suzuki and K. Aida, "75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplification with erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers and distributed Raman amplifiers in 9 × 2.5-Gb/s WDM transmission experiment", in IOOC/ECOC'97, 1997, paper PDP 73.

M. Nissov, C. R. Davidson, K. Rottwitt, R. Menges, P. C. Corbett, D. Innis and N. S. Bergano, "100 Gb/s (10 × 10 Gb/s) WDM transmission over 7200 km using distributed Raman amplification", in IOOC/ECOC'97, 1997, paper PDP 73.

N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, H. Masuda and M. Koga, "32 × 10 Gb/s distributed Raman amplification transmission with 50-GHz channel spacing in the zero-dispersion region over 640 km of 1.55-µm dispersion shifted fiber", in IOOC/OFC'99, 1999, paper PDP 9.

J. Kani, M. Jinno and K. Oguchi, "Fiber Raman amplifier for 1520 nm band WDM transmission", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 1745-1747, 1998.

H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K.-I. Suzuki and K. Aida, "1.65 µm band fiber Raman amplifier pumped by wavelength-tunable broad-linewidth light source", in ECOC'98, vol. 3, Madrid, Spain,Sept. 1998, pp. 139-141.

T. Tsuzaki, M. Kakui, M. Hirano, M. Onishi, Y. Nakai and Nishimura, "Broadband discrete fiber Raman amplifier with high differential gain operating over 1.65 µm -band", in OFC'2001 , Anaheim, CA, 2001, MA3,. pp. 1-3.

J. Bromage, J.-C. Bouteiller, H. J. Thiele, K. Brar, C. Headley, L. E. Nelson, Y. Qian, J. Demarco, S. Stulz, L. Leng, B. Zhu and B. J. Eggleton, "S-band all-Raman amplifiers for 40 × 10 Gb/s transmission over 6 × 100 km of nonzero dispersion fiber", in OFC2001 , Anaheim, CA, 2001, PD4,. pp. 1-3.

A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman and H. Fevrier, "Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/s in S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifier", in OFC2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001,PD39,. pp. 1-3.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth silica-fiber Raman amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, May 1999.

T. Miyamoto, T. Tsuzaki, T. Okuno, M. Kakui, M. Hirano, M. Onishi and M. Shigematsu, "Raman amplification over 100 nm-bandwidth with dispersion and dispersion slope compensation for conventional single mode fiber", in OFC'02, vol. 66, 2002, TuJ7.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato and M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wideband tellurite-based Raman fiber amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1442-1443, 2001.

H. H. Kee, C. R. S. Fludger and V. Handerek, "Statistical properties of polarization dependent gain in fiber Raman amplifiers", in OFC'02, vol. 180, 2002,WB2.

C. T. Marvin and T. Baak, "Raman spectra of some low-expansion glasses", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 58, pp. 1459-1461, 1968.

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida and Y. Ohishi, "Low noise figure broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 887-888, 1998.

H. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stents, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers", IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 159-161, 1998.

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