Abstract

We have proposed, analyzed, and demonstrated a high-isolation photonic microwave mixer using an integrated, dual-stage balanced-bridge Mach-Zehnder modulator. The proposed balanced photonic microwave mixer provides not only high isolation between radio frequency (RF) signal and local oscillator (LO) ports, but also excellent isolation between intermediate frequency (IF) and RF/LO ports without any filters. In this paper, the structure, principle,and operation settings are discussed in detail. Experimental results showed >60 dB electrical isolation between RF and LO ports and > 50~dB isolation between IF and RF/LO ports in a demonstrative photonic microwave mixer. This device can extend the bandwidth of a modulator and have wide applications in RF photonic links where RF signal conversion and processing are required.

© 2003 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. W. Kulczyk and Q. Davis, "The avalanche photodiode as an electronic mixer in an optical receiver", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-19, pp. 1181-1190, Nov. 1972.
  2. Q. Liu, R. Davis and R. A. MacDonald, "Experimental investigation of fiber optic microwave link with monolithic integrated optoelectronic mixing receiver", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 43, pp. 2357 -2360, Sept. 1995.
  3. T. Hoshida and M. Tsuchiya, "Broad-band millimeter-wave upconversion by nonlinear photodetection using a waveguide p-i-n photodiode", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 860-862, June 1998.
  4. H. Ogawa and Y. Kamiya, "Fiber-optic microwave transmission using harmonic laser mixing, optoelectronic mixing and optically pumped mixing", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 39, pp. 2045-2051, July 1991.
  5. Z. Urey, D. Wake, D. J. Newson and I. D. Henning, "Comparison of InGaAs transistors as optoelectronic mixers", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 1796-1797, 1993.
  6. Y. Bester, D. Ritter, C. P. Liu, A. J. Seeds and A. Madjar, "A single-stage three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor optoelectronic mixer", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 605-609, Apr. 1998.
  7. H. Ogawa and Y. Kamitsuna, "Fiber-optic links using balanced laser harmonic generation and balanced/image cancellation laser mixing", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 40, pp. 2278 -2284, Dec. 1992.
  8. E. Portnoi, V. Gorfinkel, E. Avrutin, I. Thayne, D. Barrow, J. Marsh and S. Luryi, "Optoelectronic microwave-range frequency mixing in semiconductor lasers", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 1, pp. 451-459, June 1995.
  9. J. Lasri, M. Shtaif, G. Eisenstein, E. A. Avrutin and U. Koren, "Optoelectronic mixing using a short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 443-447, Mar. 1998.
  10. B. H. Kolner and D. W. Dolfi, "Intermodulation distortion and compression in an integrated electrooptic modulator", Appl. Opt., vol. 26, pp. 3676-3680, 1987.
  11. G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns and C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 41, pp. 2383-2391, Dec. 1993.
  12. R. T. Logan and E. Gertel, "Millimeter-wave photonic downconvertors: Theory and demonstrations", Proc. SPIE, vol. 2560, pp. 58-65, 1995.
  13. G. K. Gopalakrishnan, R. P. Moeller, M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, "A low-loss downconverting analog fiber-optic link", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 43, pp. 2318-2323, Sept. 1995.
  14. R. Helkey, J. C. Twichell and C. Cox, III, "A down-conversion optical link with RF gain", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 956-961, June 1997.
  15. A. C. Lindsay, G. A. Knight and S. T. Winnall, "Photonic mixer for wide bandwidth RF receiver applications", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol., vol. 43, pp. 2311-2317, Sept. 1995.
  16. C. K. Sun, R. J. Orazi and S. A. Pappert, "Efficient microwave frequency conversion using photonic link signal mixing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 154-156, Jan. 1996.
  17. C. K. Sun, R. J. Orazi, S. A. Pappert and W. K. Burns, "A photonic-link millimeter-wave mixer using cascaded optical modulators and harmonic carrier generation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1166-1168, Sept. 1996.
  18. K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, "Optically amplified downconverting link with shot-noise-limited performance", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 148-150, Jan. 1996.
  19. K. J. Willians and R. D. Esman, "Observation of photodetector nonlinearities", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 731-732, 1992.
  20. G. Maury, A. Hilt, T. Berceli, B. Cabon and A. Vilcot, "Microwave-frequency conversion methods by optical interferometer and photodiode", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 45, pp. 1481-1485, Aug. 1997.
  21. Y. Nakasuga, K. Horikawa and H. Ogawa, "Balanced cascaded optical intensity modulator links for frequency multiplexing and mixing", in IEEE MTT-S Dig., 1994, pp. 495-498.
  22. H. Skeie, "Apparatus and method for linearized cascade coupled integrated optical modulator", U.S. Patent 5 148 503, Sept. 15, 1992.
  23. H. Skeie and R. V. Johnson, "Linearization of electrooptic modulators by a cascade coupling of phase modulating electrodes", Proc. SPIE, vol. 1583, pp. 153-164, 1991.
  24. H. Skeie, "An optically linearized modulator for CATV applications", Proc. SPIE, vol. 2291, pp. 227-238, 1994.
  25. M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, W. J. Hallam and J. C. Maycock, "Optically linearized modulators: Chirp control for low-distortion analog transmission", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 15, pp. 1538-1545, Aug. 1997.
  26. W. E. Stephens and T. R. Joseph, "System characteristics of direct modulated and externally modulated RF fiber-optic links", J. Lightwave Technol., pp. 380-387, Mar. 1997.
  27. G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, C. H. Cox III and S. D. Lowney, "High-performance optical analog link using external modulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 404-406, Nov. 1989.
  28. C. H. Cox, G. E. Betts and L. M. Johnson, "An analytical and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 38, pp. 501-509, May 1990.
  29. E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, A. S. Daryoush and N. R. Samant, "Maximum dynamic range operation of a microwave external modulation fiber-optic link", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 41, pp. 1299-1306, Aug. 1993.
  30. L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, "Optimizing the ultrawide-band photonic link", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 45, pp. 1384-1389, Aug. 1997.
  31. M. S. Islam, T. Chau, A. Nespola, S. Mathai, A. R. Rollinger, W. R. Deal, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco and A. Y. Cho, "Distributed balanced photodetectors for high-performance RF photonics links", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 457-459, Apr. 1999.
  32. G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns and C. H. Bulmer, "Electrical loss mechanisms in travelling wave LiNbO3 optical modulators", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 207-209, 1992.
  33. L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco and A. Y. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors with high saturation power and large bandwidth", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1376-1378, Oct. 1996.

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

A. C. Lindsay, G. A. Knight and S. T. Winnall, "Photonic mixer for wide bandwidth RF receiver applications", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol., vol. 43, pp. 2311-2317, Sept. 1995.

C. K. Sun, R. J. Orazi and S. A. Pappert, "Efficient microwave frequency conversion using photonic link signal mixing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 154-156, Jan. 1996.

C. K. Sun, R. J. Orazi, S. A. Pappert and W. K. Burns, "A photonic-link millimeter-wave mixer using cascaded optical modulators and harmonic carrier generation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1166-1168, Sept. 1996.

K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, "Optically amplified downconverting link with shot-noise-limited performance", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 148-150, Jan. 1996.

K. J. Willians and R. D. Esman, "Observation of photodetector nonlinearities", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 731-732, 1992.

G. Maury, A. Hilt, T. Berceli, B. Cabon and A. Vilcot, "Microwave-frequency conversion methods by optical interferometer and photodiode", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 45, pp. 1481-1485, Aug. 1997.

Y. Nakasuga, K. Horikawa and H. Ogawa, "Balanced cascaded optical intensity modulator links for frequency multiplexing and mixing", in IEEE MTT-S Dig., 1994, pp. 495-498.

H. Skeie, "Apparatus and method for linearized cascade coupled integrated optical modulator", U.S. Patent 5 148 503, Sept. 15, 1992.

H. Skeie and R. V. Johnson, "Linearization of electrooptic modulators by a cascade coupling of phase modulating electrodes", Proc. SPIE, vol. 1583, pp. 153-164, 1991.

H. Skeie, "An optically linearized modulator for CATV applications", Proc. SPIE, vol. 2291, pp. 227-238, 1994.

M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, W. J. Hallam and J. C. Maycock, "Optically linearized modulators: Chirp control for low-distortion analog transmission", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 15, pp. 1538-1545, Aug. 1997.

W. E. Stephens and T. R. Joseph, "System characteristics of direct modulated and externally modulated RF fiber-optic links", J. Lightwave Technol., pp. 380-387, Mar. 1997.

G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, C. H. Cox III and S. D. Lowney, "High-performance optical analog link using external modulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 404-406, Nov. 1989.

C. H. Cox, G. E. Betts and L. M. Johnson, "An analytical and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 38, pp. 501-509, May 1990.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, A. S. Daryoush and N. R. Samant, "Maximum dynamic range operation of a microwave external modulation fiber-optic link", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 41, pp. 1299-1306, Aug. 1993.

L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, "Optimizing the ultrawide-band photonic link", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 45, pp. 1384-1389, Aug. 1997.

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, A. Nespola, S. Mathai, A. R. Rollinger, W. R. Deal, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco and A. Y. Cho, "Distributed balanced photodetectors for high-performance RF photonics links", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 457-459, Apr. 1999.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns and C. H. Bulmer, "Electrical loss mechanisms in travelling wave LiNbO3 optical modulators", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 207-209, 1992.

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco and A. Y. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors with high saturation power and large bandwidth", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1376-1378, Oct. 1996.

H. Ogawa and Y. Kamitsuna, "Fiber-optic links using balanced laser harmonic generation and balanced/image cancellation laser mixing", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 40, pp. 2278 -2284, Dec. 1992.

E. Portnoi, V. Gorfinkel, E. Avrutin, I. Thayne, D. Barrow, J. Marsh and S. Luryi, "Optoelectronic microwave-range frequency mixing in semiconductor lasers", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 1, pp. 451-459, June 1995.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns and C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 41, pp. 2383-2391, Dec. 1993.

R. T. Logan and E. Gertel, "Millimeter-wave photonic downconvertors: Theory and demonstrations", Proc. SPIE, vol. 2560, pp. 58-65, 1995.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, R. P. Moeller, M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, "A low-loss downconverting analog fiber-optic link", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 43, pp. 2318-2323, Sept. 1995.

W. Kulczyk and Q. Davis, "The avalanche photodiode as an electronic mixer in an optical receiver", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-19, pp. 1181-1190, Nov. 1972.

Q. Liu, R. Davis and R. A. MacDonald, "Experimental investigation of fiber optic microwave link with monolithic integrated optoelectronic mixing receiver", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 43, pp. 2357 -2360, Sept. 1995.

T. Hoshida and M. Tsuchiya, "Broad-band millimeter-wave upconversion by nonlinear photodetection using a waveguide p-i-n photodiode", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 860-862, June 1998.

H. Ogawa and Y. Kamiya, "Fiber-optic microwave transmission using harmonic laser mixing, optoelectronic mixing and optically pumped mixing", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 39, pp. 2045-2051, July 1991.

Z. Urey, D. Wake, D. J. Newson and I. D. Henning, "Comparison of InGaAs transistors as optoelectronic mixers", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 1796-1797, 1993.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.