Abstract

Progress toward 40-Gb/s polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) compensation is presented in several areas. A single-waveplate polarization scrambler that generates Stokes' parameters with just three harmonics has been realized. Together with an arrival-time detection scheme, it allows the detection of about 1 ps of PMD within 2.4 µs in a 40-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero transmission setup. A scrambler that operates independent of its input polarization has also been realized. Both scramblers can be shared among a number of wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) channels for which PMD is to be detected. Furthermore, an inverse scattering technique has been implemented to determine differential group-delay profiles of an improved distributed PMD compensator in X-cut, Y-propagation LiNbO3 . In this context, the most common kind of higher order PMD is identified,which typically persists after compensation of first-order PMD. In a fiber link with polarization scrambling, it is shown to be measurable in a most efficient manner by comparing the rising and falling slopes of the detected signal using two oppositely poled one-way rectifiers placed at the output of a differentiator.

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. R. Noé, "German Patent Application DE 100 50 266.0", Oct. 9, 2000.
  2. H. Rosenfeldt, et al. "Automatic PMD compensation at 40 Gbit/s and 80 Gbit/s using a 3-dimensional DOP evaluation for feedback", presented at the OFC2001, Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper PD27-1, 2001.
  3. R. Noé, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, F. Wüst and S. Hinz, "Polarization mode dispersion detected by arrival time measurement of polarization-scrambled light", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 229-235, Feb. 2002.
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  6. D. Sandel, F. Wüst, V. Mirvoda and R. Noé, "Standard (NRZ 1 × 40 Gbit/s, 210 km) and polarization multiplex (CS-RZ, 2 × 40 Gbit/s, 212 km) transmissions with PMD compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1181-1183, Aug. 2002.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

R. Noé, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, F. Wüst and S. Hinz, "Polarization mode dispersion detected by arrival time measurement of polarization-scrambled light", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 229-235, Feb. 2002.

R. Noé, H Heidrich and D. Hoffman, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 1199-1207, July 1988.

M. Amemiya, "Pulse broadening due to higher order dispersion and its transmission limit", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 591-597, Apr. 2002.

G. J. Foschini and C. D. Poole, "Statistical theory of polarization dispersion in single-mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1439-1456, Nov. 1991.

Other (15)

R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schöpflin, C. Glingener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischer, T. Weyrauch and W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20 and 40 Gb/s with various optical equalizers", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 17, pp. 1602-1616, Sept. 1999.

R. Noé, "German Patent Application DE 100 50 266.0", Oct. 9, 2000.

H. Rosenfeldt, et al. "Automatic PMD compensation at 40 Gbit/s and 80 Gbit/s using a 3-dimensional DOP evaluation for feedback", presented at the OFC2001, Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper PD27-1, 2001.

V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, F. Wüst and R. Noé, "Optimized polarization scramblers for PMD detection", in Proc. 28th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2002) , vol. 3, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002, p. 3.5.

B. L. Heffner, "Accurate, automated measurement of differential group delay dispersion and principal state variation using Jones matrix eigenanalysis", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 814 -817, July 1993.

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson and H. Kogelnik, "Müller matrix method for determining polarization mode dispersion vectors", in Proc. ECOC 1999, vol. II, Nice, France,Sept. 26-30 1999, pp. 10- 11.

G. J. Foschini, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson and H. Kogelnik, "Statistics of polarization dependent chromatic fiber dispersion due to PMD", in Proc. ECOC 1999, vol. II, Nice, France,Sept. 26-30 1999, pp. 56- 59.

N. Kikuchi, "Adaptive chromatic dispersion compensation using higher order polarization-mode dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1115-1117, Oct. 2001.

H. Sunnerud, M. Westlund, J. Li, J. Hansryd, M. Karlsson, P.-O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "Long-term 160 Gb/s-TDM, RZ transmission with automatic PMD compensation and system monitoring using an optical sampling system", presented at the ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Postdeadline Paper PD.M.1.9, Sept.-Oct. 30-4, 2001.

L.-S. Yan, Q. Yu, A. B. Sahin, Y. Wang and A. E. Willner, "Simple bit-rate independent PMD monitoring for WDM systems", presented at the ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Paper TU.A.3.2, Sept.-Oct. 30-4, 2001.

D. Sandel, F. Wüst, V. Mirvoda and R. Noé, "Standard (NRZ 1 × 40 Gbit/s, 210 km) and polarization multiplex (CS-RZ, 2 × 40 Gbit/s, 212 km) transmissions with PMD compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1181-1183, Aug. 2002.

R. Noé, D. Sandel, S. Hinz, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, V. Mirvoda, G. Feise, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, F. Wehrmann, C. Glingener, A. Schöpflin, A. Färbert and G. Fischer, "Integrated optical LiNbO3 distributed polarization mode dispersion equalizer in 20 Gbit/s transmission system", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 652-654, 1999.

L. Möller, "Filter synthesis for broad-band PMD compensation in WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1258-1260, Sept. 2000.

S. E. Harris, E. O. Ammann and I. C. Chang, "Optical network synthesis using birefringent crystals-Part I. Synthesis of lossless networks of equal-length crystals", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 54, pp. 1267-1279, 1964.

R. Noé, "Combatting and equalizing the effects of PMD in 40 Gb/s systems and beyond", in Proc. 28th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), vol. II, Tutorial 4, Copenhagen, Denmark,.

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