Abstract

We observed experimentally four-wave mixing (FWM) between a 14xx-nm pump and a 15xx-nm signal in a forward-pumped distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) over 50 km of nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber with a zero dispersion wavelength of 1497 nm. The 100-mW pump Fabry-Pérot (FP) spectra centered at 1440, 1450, and 1460 nm are reproduced via FWM around the single-wavelength probe signal around 1558, 1548, and 1538 nm,respectively. The suppression of DRA gain by about 2-3 dB was experimentally observed with peak FWM at minimum phase mismatching between two 14xx-nm FP pump wavelengths and two 15xx-nm signal wavelengths. This DRA gain suppression,together with the reproduced pump FP spectrum at 15xx-nm signal band, may limit the usefulness of the forward-pumped DRA, generating spectrally nonuniform FWM-induced noise floors and crosstalk in wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic transmission systems.

© 2003 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Other (14)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995, p. 42.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995, p. 330.

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt and M. E. Lines, "A method to predict the Raman gain spectra of germanosilicate fibers with arbitrary index profiles", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 24-26, Jan. 2002.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, May 1999.

J. C. Antona, S. Bigo and S. Kosmalski, "Nonlinear index measurements of various fiber types over C+L bands using four-wave mixing", in Proc. ECOC'01, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, pp. 270- 271.

R. E. Neuhauser, P. M. Krummrich, H. Bock and C. Glingener, "Impact of nonlinear pump interactions on broadband distributed Raman amplification", in Proc. OFC'2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001,MA4-1.

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, N. Jolley and R. J. Mears, "Novel ultra-broadband high performance distributed Raman amplifier employing pump modulation", in Proc. OFC'2002, Anaheim, CA, 2002,WB4,. pp. 183-184.

J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson and C. J. McKinstrie, "Raman-enhanced pump-signal four-wave mixing in bidirectionally-pumped Raman amplifiers", in OAA'2002, Vancouver, Canada, 2002,OWA5-1.

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki and R. I. MacDonald, "CW three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 5098-5106, 1978.

N. Shibata, R. P. Braun and R. G. Waarts, "Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber", J. Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1205-1210, 1987 .

I. Haxell, N. Robinson, A. Akhtar, M. Ding and R. Haigh, "2410 km all-optical network field trial with 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission", in Proc. OFC'2000, Baltimore, MD, 2000,PD41-1.

F. Koch, S. V. Chernikov, S. A. E. Lewis and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of single stage, dual-pumped Raman fiber amplifiers for different gain fiber lengths", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 347-348, 2000.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. Demarco, R. Pedrazzani and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 159-161, Jan. 1998.

R. P. Espindola, K. L. Bacher, K. Kojima, N. Chand, S. Srinivasan, G. C. Cho, F. Jin, C. Fuchs, V. Milner and W. C. Dautremont-Smith, "Penalty-free 10 Gbits/s single-channel co-pumped distributed Raman amplification using low RIN 14xx nm DFB pump", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 113-115, 2002.

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