Abstract

In a wavelength-division-muliplexing (WDM) optical network, the failure of network elements (e.g., fiber links and cross connects) may cause the failure of several optical channels, thereby leading to large data losses. This study examines different approaches to protect a mesh-based WDM optical network from such failures. These approaches are based on two survivability paradigms:1) path protection/restoration and 2) link protection/restoration. The study examines the wavelength capacity requirements, and routing and wavelength assignment of primary and backup paths for path and link protection and proposes distributed protocols for path and link restoration. The study also examines the protection-switching time and the restoration time for each of these schemes,and the susceptibility of these schemes to multiple link failures. The numerical results obtained for a representative network topology with random traffic demands demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between the capacity utilization and the susceptibility to multiple link failures. We find that, on one hand,path protection provides significant capacity savings over link protection,and shared protection provides significant savings over dedicated protection; while on the other hand, path protection is more susceptible to multiple link failures than link protection, and shared protection is more susceptible to multiple link failures than dedicated protection. We formulate a model of protection-switching times for the different protection schemes based on a fully distributed control network. We propose distributed control protocols for path and link restoration. Numerical results obtained by simulating these protocols indicate that, for a representative network topology, path restoration has a better restoration efficiency than link restoration,and link restoration has a faster restoration time compared with path restoration.

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks, New York: McGraw-Hill, July 1997.
  2. P. Bonenfant, "Optical layer survivability: A comprehensive approach", in Proc. OFC '98, vol. 2, San Jose, CA, Feb. 1998, pp. 270-271.
  3. O. Gerstel and R. Ramaswami, "Optical layer survivability: A services perspective", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, pp. 104-113, Mar. 2000 .
  4. T. Wu, Fiber Network Service Survivability, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1992.
  5. T. Wu, "Emerging technologies for fiber network survivability", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 33, pp. 58-74, Feb. 1995.
  6. O. Gerstel and R. Ramaswami, "Optical layer survivability-An implementation perspective", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 18, pp. 1885-1899, Oct. 2000.
  7. D. Zhou and S. Subramaniam, "Survivability in optical networks", IEEE Network, vol. 14, pp. 16-23, Nov.-Dec. 2000.
  8. in"Tutorial Sessions, Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC '99)", San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999.
  9. O. Crochat, J.-Y. Le Boudec and O. Gerstel, "Protection interoperability for WDM optical networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, pp. 384-395, June 2000.
  10. O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami and G. Sasaki, "Fault tolerant multiwavelength optical rings with limited wavelength conversion", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 16, pp. 1166-1178, Sept. 1998.
  11. M. Medard, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry and R. G. Gallager, "Redundant trees for preplanned recovery in arbitrary vertex-redundant or edge-redundant graphs", IEEE/ACM Transa. Networking , vol. 7, pp. 641-652, Oct. 1999.
  12. E. Limal, S. L. Danielsen and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Capacity utilization in resilient wavelength-routed optical networks using link restoration", in Proc., OFC '98, vol. 2, San Jose, CA, Feb. 1998, pp. 297-298.
  13. E. Karasan and E. Goldstein, "Optical restoration at the wavelength-multiplex section level in WDM mesh networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1343-1345, Sept. 1998.
  14. A. Fumagalli and L. Valcarenghi, "IP restoration vs. WDM protection: Is there an optimal choice?", IEEE Network, vol. 14, pp. 34 -41, Nov.-Dec. 2000.
  15. L. Sahasrabuddhe, S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, "Fault management in IP-over-WDM networks: WDM protection vs. IP restoration", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., to be published.
  16. G. Mohan, C. S. R. Murthy and A. K. Somani, "Efficient algorithms for routing dependable connections in WDM optical networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking , vol. 9, pp. 553-566, Oct. 2001.
  17. H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, "Connection management for survivable wavelength-routed WDM mesh networks", Optical Networks Mag., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 17-28, July-Aug. 2001.
  18. R. R. Iraschko, M. H. MacGregor and W. D. Grover, "Optimal capacity placement for path restoration in mesh survivable networks", in Proc. ICC '96, Dallas, TX, June 1996, pp. 1568-1574.
  19. M. Herzberg, S. J. Bye and A. Utano, "The hop-limit approach for spare-capacity assignment in survivable networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 3, pp. 775-784, Dec. 1995.
  20. J. Anderson, B. T. Doshi, S. Dravida and P. Harshavardhana, "Fast restoration of ATM networks", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 12, pp. 128-138, Jan. 1994.
  21. W. D. Grover, "The self-healing network: A fast distributed restoration technique for networks using digital crossconnect machines", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM '87, Tokyo, Japan,Nov. 1987, pp. 28.2.1-28.2.6.
  22. C. E. Chow, J. Bicknell, S. McCaughey and S. Syed, "A fast distributed network restoration algorithm", in Proc. IEEE IPCCC '93, Tempe, AZ, Mar. 1993, pp. 261-267.
  23. H. Sakauchi, Y. Nishimura and S. Hasegawa, "A self-healing network with an economical spare-channel assignment", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM '90, San Diego, CA, Dec. 1990, pp. 438-443.
  24. H. Komine, T. Chujo, T. Ogura and T. Soejima, "A distributed restoration algorithm for multiple-link and node failures of transport networks", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM '90, San Diego, CA, Dec. 1990, pp. 459-463.
  25. S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, "Fixed alternate routing and wavelength conversion in wavelength routed optical networks", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM '98, vol. 4, Sydney, Australia,Nov. 1998, pp. 2295-2302.
  26. R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, "Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 3, pp. 489-500, Oct. 1995.
  27. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, "Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, pp. 100-108, Sept. 2001.

Other (27)

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks, New York: McGraw-Hill, July 1997.

P. Bonenfant, "Optical layer survivability: A comprehensive approach", in Proc. OFC '98, vol. 2, San Jose, CA, Feb. 1998, pp. 270-271.

O. Gerstel and R. Ramaswami, "Optical layer survivability: A services perspective", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, pp. 104-113, Mar. 2000 .

T. Wu, Fiber Network Service Survivability, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1992.

T. Wu, "Emerging technologies for fiber network survivability", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 33, pp. 58-74, Feb. 1995.

O. Gerstel and R. Ramaswami, "Optical layer survivability-An implementation perspective", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 18, pp. 1885-1899, Oct. 2000.

D. Zhou and S. Subramaniam, "Survivability in optical networks", IEEE Network, vol. 14, pp. 16-23, Nov.-Dec. 2000.

in"Tutorial Sessions, Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC '99)", San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999.

O. Crochat, J.-Y. Le Boudec and O. Gerstel, "Protection interoperability for WDM optical networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, pp. 384-395, June 2000.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami and G. Sasaki, "Fault tolerant multiwavelength optical rings with limited wavelength conversion", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 16, pp. 1166-1178, Sept. 1998.

M. Medard, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry and R. G. Gallager, "Redundant trees for preplanned recovery in arbitrary vertex-redundant or edge-redundant graphs", IEEE/ACM Transa. Networking , vol. 7, pp. 641-652, Oct. 1999.

E. Limal, S. L. Danielsen and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Capacity utilization in resilient wavelength-routed optical networks using link restoration", in Proc., OFC '98, vol. 2, San Jose, CA, Feb. 1998, pp. 297-298.

E. Karasan and E. Goldstein, "Optical restoration at the wavelength-multiplex section level in WDM mesh networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1343-1345, Sept. 1998.

A. Fumagalli and L. Valcarenghi, "IP restoration vs. WDM protection: Is there an optimal choice?", IEEE Network, vol. 14, pp. 34 -41, Nov.-Dec. 2000.

L. Sahasrabuddhe, S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, "Fault management in IP-over-WDM networks: WDM protection vs. IP restoration", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., to be published.

G. Mohan, C. S. R. Murthy and A. K. Somani, "Efficient algorithms for routing dependable connections in WDM optical networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking , vol. 9, pp. 553-566, Oct. 2001.

H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, "Connection management for survivable wavelength-routed WDM mesh networks", Optical Networks Mag., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 17-28, July-Aug. 2001.

R. R. Iraschko, M. H. MacGregor and W. D. Grover, "Optimal capacity placement for path restoration in mesh survivable networks", in Proc. ICC '96, Dallas, TX, June 1996, pp. 1568-1574.

M. Herzberg, S. J. Bye and A. Utano, "The hop-limit approach for spare-capacity assignment in survivable networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 3, pp. 775-784, Dec. 1995.

J. Anderson, B. T. Doshi, S. Dravida and P. Harshavardhana, "Fast restoration of ATM networks", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 12, pp. 128-138, Jan. 1994.

W. D. Grover, "The self-healing network: A fast distributed restoration technique for networks using digital crossconnect machines", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM '87, Tokyo, Japan,Nov. 1987, pp. 28.2.1-28.2.6.

C. E. Chow, J. Bicknell, S. McCaughey and S. Syed, "A fast distributed network restoration algorithm", in Proc. IEEE IPCCC '93, Tempe, AZ, Mar. 1993, pp. 261-267.

H. Sakauchi, Y. Nishimura and S. Hasegawa, "A self-healing network with an economical spare-channel assignment", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM '90, San Diego, CA, Dec. 1990, pp. 438-443.

H. Komine, T. Chujo, T. Ogura and T. Soejima, "A distributed restoration algorithm for multiple-link and node failures of transport networks", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM '90, San Diego, CA, Dec. 1990, pp. 459-463.

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, "Fixed alternate routing and wavelength conversion in wavelength routed optical networks", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM '98, vol. 4, Sydney, Australia,Nov. 1998, pp. 2295-2302.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, "Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 3, pp. 489-500, Oct. 1995.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, "Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, pp. 100-108, Sept. 2001.

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