Abstract

A systematic experimental and numerical study of the device performance of waveguide-coupled SiON microresonators with air and polymer cladding is presented. Values of device parameters like propagation losses of the microresonator modes, the off-resonance insertion losses, and the straight waveguide to microresonator coupling are determined by applying a detailed fitting procedure to the experimental results and compared to results of detailed numerical simulations. By comparing the propagation losses of the fundamental TE polarized microresonator mode obtained by fitting to the measured spectra to the also experimentally determined propagation losses in the adjacent straight waveguide and the materials losses,it is possible to identify the loss mechanisms in the microresonator. By comparing experimental results for microresonators with air and polymethylmethacrylate cladding and a detailed numerical study, the influence of the cladding index on the bend losses is evaluated. It is demonstrated that the presence of an upper cladding can, under the right conditions, actually be beneficial for loss reduction.

© 2003 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

P. Heimela, P. Katila, J. Aarnio and A. Heinamaki, "Thermally tunable integrated optical ring resonator with poly-Si thermistor", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 2260-2267, Oct. 1996 .

W. W. Lui, C.-L. Xu, T. Hirono, K. Tokoyama and W.-P. Huang, "Full vectorial wave propagation in semiconductor optical bending waveguides and equivalent straight waveguide approximations", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 910-914, May 1998.

K. Wörhoff, P. V. Lambeck and A. Driessen, "Design, tolerance analysis and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devices", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1401-1407, Aug. 1999.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 998-1005, June 1997 .

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine and H. A. Haus, "Analytic theory of coupling from tapered fibers and half-blocks into microsphere resonators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 704-715, Apr. 1999.

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoeksta, L. Kuipers and N. F. van Hulst, "Detailed analysis of the intra-cavity phenomena inside a cylindrical microresonator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 519-529, Mar. 2002.

D. Rafizadeh, J. P. Zhang, R. C. Tiberio and S. T. Ho, "Propagation loss measurements in semiconductor microcavity ring and disk resonators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1308-1313, July 1998.

V. Van, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz and P.-T. Ho, "Propagation loss in single-mode GaAs-AlGaAs microring resonators: measurement and model", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1734-1739, Nov. 2001.

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (21)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonators arrays for VLSI photonics", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 323 -325, Mar. 2000.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimmerling and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO 2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 549 -551, 1998.

F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu and B. E. Little, "A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical micro-resonator", Opt. Commun., vol. 167, pp. 77-82, 1999.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton and R. A. Logan, "Directional light coupling from microdisk laser", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, pp. 561-563, 1993.

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen and T. J. A. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, pp. 747-749, 1997.

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoeksta, L. Kuipers and N. F. van Hulst, "High resolution photon scanning tunneling microscope measurements of the whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical microresonator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1531-1533, Nov. 2000.

D. J. W. Klunder, F. S. Tan, T. van der Veen, H. F. Bulthuis, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra and A. Driessen, "Design and characterization of waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4", in Proc. 2000 IEEE LEOS Ann. Meeting , 2000, pp. 758-759.

D. J. W. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. S. Tan, T. van der Veen, H. F. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra and A. Driessen, "Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology", Appl. Phys. B., vol. 73, pp. 603-608, 2001.

A. Driessen, D. H. Geuzebroek, D. J. W. Klunder and F. S. Tan, "Analysis of a microring resonator based ultra-compact transceiver for the access network", in Proc. LEOS Benelux 2001, Brussels, Belgium, 2001, pp. 25-28.

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Suzuki, B. E. Little, S. Sato and Y. Kokubun, "Temperature insensitive vertically coupled microring resonator add/drop filters by means of a polymer overlay", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1138-1140, Sept. 1999 .

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. E. Little and Y. Kokubun, "Wavelength trimming of a microring resonator filter by means of a uv sensitive polymer overlay", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 688-690, June 1999.

N. S. Lagali, D. J. W. Klunder, G. J. Gerritsma and A. Driessen, "Ultra-efficient electro-optic polymer modulators for short-distance high-speed optical interconnects", Nonlinear Opt., vol. 25, pp. 253-258, 2000.

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang and L. R. Dalton, "Integrated WDM polymer modulator", in Proc. OFC 2002, Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 31-33.

F. S. Tan, D. J. W. Klunder, H. F. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra and A. Driessen, "Direct measurement of the on-chip insertion loss of high finesse microring resonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology", in Proc. LEOS Benelux 2001, Brussels, Belgium, 2001, pp. 181-184.

Commercially available finite-difference mode solvers for bends and straight waveguides with 1D and 2D cross-sections that are an integrated part of ‘Olympios’ Concept to Volume (C2V), Enschede, The Netherlands.

D. H. Geuzebroek, E. J. Klein, H. Kelderman, F. S. Tan, D. J. W. Klunder and A. Driessen, "Thermal wavelength-selective switch based on micro-ring resonators", in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, R. Germann, G. L. Bona, H. W. M. Salemink and R. M. de Ridder, "Tunable passband flattened 1-from-16 binary-tree structured add-after-drop multiplexer using SiON waveguide technology", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1201 -1203, Sept. 2000.

J. P. R. Lacey and F. P. Payne, "Radiation loss from planar waveguides with random wall imperfections", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J., vol. 137, pp. 282-288, 1990.

P. F. Schmidt, Praxis der Rasterelektronenmikroskopie und Microbereichsanalyze, 1st ed. Renningen-Malmsheim: Germany: Expert-Verlag, 1994.

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 321-322, 2000.

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics, 1st ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984.

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