Abstract

In this paper, we propose and analyze a novel compact electrooptic modulator on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide. The device confines both optical field and charge carriers in a micron-size region. The optical field is confined by using a planar Fabry-Pérot microcavity with deep Si/SiO2 Bragg reflectors. Carriers are laterally confined in the cavity region by employing deep-etched trenches. The refractive index of the cavity is varied by using the free-carrier dispersion effect produced by a p-i-n diode. The device has been designed and analyzed using electrical and optical simulations. Our calculations predict, for a 20-µm-long device, a modulation depth of around 80% and a transmittance of 86% at an operating wavelength of 1.55 µm by using an electrical power under dc conditions on the order of 25 µW.

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  2. U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt and K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 647-648, May 1996.
  3. P. Trinh, S. Yegnanaray and B. Jalali, "5 × 9 integrated optical start coupler in silicon-on-insulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 794-796, 1996.
  4. T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. Evans, P. R. Routley and M. R. Josey, "Effects of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 59-61, Jan. 2000.
  5. G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, "Thermo-optical modulator at 1.5 µm in silicon etalon", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 1, p. 83, 1992.
  6. C. Cocorullo, M. Iodice, I. Rendina and P. M. Sarro, "Silicon thermo-optical micro-modulator with 700 kHz -3 dB bandwidth", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 363-365, Apr. 1995.
  7. J. P. Lorenzo and R. A. Soref, "1.3 µm electro-optic silicon switch", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 51, no. 1, p. 6, 1987 .
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  13. Y. Liu, E. Liu, G. Li, S. Zhang, J. Luo, F. Zhou, M. Cheng, B. Li and H. Ge, "Novel silicon waveguide switch based on total internal reflection", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 64, no. 16, p. 2079, 1994.
  14. C. Z. Zhao, G. Z. Li, E. K. Liu, Y. Gao and X. D. Liu, "Silicon on insulator Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 µm", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, no. 17, p. 2448, 1995.
  15. M. Y. Liu and S. Chou, "High-modulation-depth and short-cavity-length silicon Fabry-Pérot modulator with two grating Bragg reflectors", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 68, no. 2, p. 170, 1995.
  16. C. Z. Zhao, E. K. Liu, G. Z. Li, Y. Gao and C. S. Guo, "Zero-gap directional coupler switch integrated into a silicon-on-insulator for 1.3-µm operation", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, p. 1664, 1996.
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  33. O. Nakatsuka, T. Ashizawa, H. Iwano, S. Zaima and Y. Yasuda, "Contact resistivities and electrical characteristics of Co/Si contact by rapid thermal annealing", in Proc. Advanced Metallization Conf. 1998 (AMC 1998), vol. 784, PA, 1999, pp. 605-610.
  34. M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali, "Fabrication of high aspect ratio photonic bandgap structures on silicon-on-insulator", Proc. SPIE, vol. 3936, pp. 33-39, 2000.
  35. M. Wasilik and A. P. Pisano, "Low frequency process for silicon on insulator deep reactive ion etching", Proc. SPIE, vol. 4592, pp. 462-472, 2001.

Other (35)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics", Proc. IEEE , vol. 81, pp. 1687-1706, Dec. 1993.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt and K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 647-648, May 1996.

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanaray and B. Jalali, "5 × 9 integrated optical start coupler in silicon-on-insulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 794-796, 1996.

T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. Evans, P. R. Routley and M. R. Josey, "Effects of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 59-61, Jan. 2000.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, "Thermo-optical modulator at 1.5 µm in silicon etalon", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 1, p. 83, 1992.

C. Cocorullo, M. Iodice, I. Rendina and P. M. Sarro, "Silicon thermo-optical micro-modulator with 700 kHz -3 dB bandwidth", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 363-365, Apr. 1995.

J. P. Lorenzo and R. A. Soref, "1.3 µm electro-optic silicon switch", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 51, no. 1, p. 6, 1987 .

B. R. Hemenway, O. Solgaard and D. M. Bloom, "All-silicon integrated optical modulator for 1.3 µm fiber-optic interconnects", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 55, no. 4, p. 349, 1989.

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May and J.-M. Halbout, "Silicon optical modulators at 1.3 µm based on free-carrier absorption", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 12, p. 276, June 1991.

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May and J.-M. Halbout, "Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers based on the plasma dispersion effect", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 59, no. 7, p. 771, 1991.

X. Xiao, J. C. Sturm, K. K. Goel and P. V. Schwartz, "Fabry-Pérot optical intensity modulator at 1.3 µm in silicon", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, p. 230, Mar. 1991.

Y. L. Liu, E. K. Liu, S. L. Zhang, G. Z. Li and J. S. Luo, "Silicon 1 × 2 digital optical switch using plasma dispersion", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 2, p. 130, 1994.

Y. Liu, E. Liu, G. Li, S. Zhang, J. Luo, F. Zhou, M. Cheng, B. Li and H. Ge, "Novel silicon waveguide switch based on total internal reflection", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 64, no. 16, p. 2079, 1994.

C. Z. Zhao, G. Z. Li, E. K. Liu, Y. Gao and X. D. Liu, "Silicon on insulator Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 µm", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, no. 17, p. 2448, 1995.

M. Y. Liu and S. Chou, "High-modulation-depth and short-cavity-length silicon Fabry-Pérot modulator with two grating Bragg reflectors", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 68, no. 2, p. 170, 1995.

C. Z. Zhao, E. K. Liu, G. Z. Li, Y. Gao and C. S. Guo, "Zero-gap directional coupler switch integrated into a silicon-on-insulator for 1.3-µm operation", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, p. 1664, 1996.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, A. Irace, P. Spirito and L. Zeni, "An electrically controlled Bragg reflector integrated in a rib silicon on insulator waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, no. 2, p. 199, 1997 .

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, p. 505, Mar. 1997.

C. Z. Zhao, A. H. Chen, E. K. Liu and G. Z. Li, "Silicon-on-insulator asymmetric optical switch based on total internal reflection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, p. 1113, Aug. 1997.

G. Coppola, A. Irace, M. Iodice and A. Cutolo, "Simulation and analysis of a high-efficiency silicon optoelectronic modulator based on a Bragg mirror", Opt. Eng. , vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1076-1081, 2001.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 23, p. 123, Jan. 1987.

S. R. Giguere, L. Friedman, R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, "Simulation studies of silicon electro-optic waveguides devices", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 68, no. 10, p. 4964, 1990.

G. Breglio, A. Cutolo, A. Irace, P. Spirito, L. Zeni, M. Iodice and P. M. Sarro, "Two silicon optical modulators realizable with a fully compatible bipolar process", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 4, p. 1003, Nov./Dec. 1998.

P. D. Hewitt and G. T. Reed, "Improved modulation performance of a silicon p-i-n device by trench isolation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, p. 387, Mar. 2001.

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schuppert, K. Petermann and G. Burbach, "Low-loss singlemode optical waveguides with large cross section in silicon-on-insulator", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 1486-1488, 1991.

SILVACO Int., Santa Clara, CA,

P. D. Hewitt and G. T. Reed, "Improving the response of optical phase modulators in SOI by computer simulation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, p. 443, Mar. 2000.

[Online]. Available http://www.rsoftinc.com/fullwave.htm

S. G. Lipson, H. Lipson and D. S. Tannhauser, Optical Physics, 3rd ed. Cambridge: U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon", SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng., vol. 704, 1986.

D. R. Lim, "Device integration for silicon microphotonic platforms", Ph.D. dissertation, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge, 2000.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim and L. C. Kimerling, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 1888-1890, 2001.

O. Nakatsuka, T. Ashizawa, H. Iwano, S. Zaima and Y. Yasuda, "Contact resistivities and electrical characteristics of Co/Si contact by rapid thermal annealing", in Proc. Advanced Metallization Conf. 1998 (AMC 1998), vol. 784, PA, 1999, pp. 605-610.

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali, "Fabrication of high aspect ratio photonic bandgap structures on silicon-on-insulator", Proc. SPIE, vol. 3936, pp. 33-39, 2000.

M. Wasilik and A. P. Pisano, "Low frequency process for silicon on insulator deep reactive ion etching", Proc. SPIE, vol. 4592, pp. 462-472, 2001.

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