Abstract

We report fabrication of planar polymer Bragg gratings that can be thermally tuned 20 nm with very low polarization sensitivity, (?TE - ?TM) < ±0.05nm, throughout the tuning range. Polarization sensitivity in a planar film is caused by an anisotropic effective refractive index in the film typically resulting from strain. Strain in polymer Bragg gratings is caused by the photopolymerization and the thermal annealing processes utilized for the grating fabrication. For the case of polymer Bragg gratings, we show for the first time that fabrication-induced strain can be nearly eliminated by laser etching parallel trenches into the polymer layers on each side of the grating. The improvement in polarization sensitivity depends strongly on the trench separation, the thermal annealing process, and the grating tuning method.

© 2003 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Other (14)

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, N. Ooba and T. Kurihara, "Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with wide tuning range", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 1547-1548, 1997.

S. Toyoda, A. Kaneko, N. Ooba, H. Yamada, T. Kurihara, K. Okamoto and S. Imamura, "Polarization-independent low-crosstalk polymeric AWG-based tunable filter operating around 1.55 µm", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1141-1143, Sept. 1999.

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components", Opt. Quant. Electron., vol. 22, pp. 391-416, 1990.

Y. Inoue, K. Katoh and M. Kawachi, "Polarization sensitivity of a silica waveguide thermooptic phase shifter for planar lightwave circuits", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 36-38, Jan. 1992.

R. Adar, C. Henry, R. Kistler and R. Kazarinov, "Polarization independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica-on-silicon waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett, vol. 60, pp. 1779-1781, 1992.

C. Nadler, E. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 5, pp. 1407-1412, Sept./Oct. 1999.

R. Blomquist, L. Eldada, M. McFarland, C. Poga and L. Shacklette, "Fluorinated acrylates in making low-loss, low-birefringence and single-mode optical wave-guides with exceptional thermo-optic properties", Organic Photorefractives, Photoreceptors, Waveguides,and Fibers, Proc. SPIE, vol. 3799, pp. 266-279, 1999.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, M. Maxfield, D. Pant, G. Boudoughian, C. Poga and R. A. Norwood, "Thermooptic planar polymer Bragg grating OADM's with broad tuning range", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 448-450, Apr. 1999.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist and R. Norwood, "Integrated multichannel OADM's using polymer Bragg grating MZI's", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1416-1418, Oct. 1998.

N. Keil, C. Weinert, W. Wirges, H. H. Yao, S. Yilmaz, C. Zawadzki, J. Schneider, J. Bauer, M. Bauer, K. Lösch, K. Satzke, W. Wischmann and J. V. Wirth, "Thermo-optic vertical coupler switches using hybrid polymer/silica integration technology", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 430-431, 2000.

L. Robitaille, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, F. Gouin and C. A. Almeida, "Integration of optoelectronic switch matrices using metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and polyimide waveguide circuitry", Opt. Eng., vol. 37, pp. 1157-1163, 1998.

L. Shacklette, P. Ferm, R. Blomquist, K. Killian, L. Guiziou, L. H. K.L. How Kee Chun and J. Jouanno, "Low-loss polymer thermo-optic switch: Design and packaged performance", Proc. SPIE, vol. 4642, pp. 1-10, 2003.

N. Takato, A. Sugita, K. Onose, H. Okazaki, M. Okuno, M. Kawachi and K. Oda, "128-channel polarization-insensitive frequency-selection-switch using high-silica waveguides on Si", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 441-443, June 1990.

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori and M. Kawachi, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 707-709, June 1993.

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