Abstract

We present a detailed study of the design and performance of the bidirectional optical single-sideband modulator (BOSSM). This is a new scheme to achieve optical single-sideband modulation (OSSB) that uses a standard single-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZ-EOM) and passive fiber-optic components. The design is based on a novel technique to operate electrooptic modulators in which the radio frequency (RF) electrode is bidirectionally driven. The fundamentals of this bidirectional operation are analyzed thoroughly and it is found that it requires the use of a wide-bandwidth MZ-EOM with an electrode design that provides good velocity match between the optical and microwave modes. Deriving the expressions for the optical field and power at the output of the BOSSM, the OSSB operation is shown to be independent of the MZ-EOM bias. Therefore, the optical modulation depth at the output of the device can be enhanced using minimum transmission biasing to provide suppression of the optical carrier. Moreover, it is found that the second-order distortion is unaffected by the MZ-EOM bias; hence the technique can be applied to multi-octave bandwidth systems. Finally, the performance of the BOSSM is evaluated using a prototype based on a commercial 10 Gb/s MZ-EOM. The experimental characterization of the electrooptical parameters of this device reveals that the RF electrode design is not optimized for bidirectional operation. Therefore,the performance of the prototype is limited by the particular MZ-EOM deployed. However, sideband suppression over 10 dB is measured for most frequencies up to millimeter-waves, with peaks in the 20 dB to 30 dB range for narrow bands. This performance has enabled the demonstration of a 22-km fiber link transmitting a 29-GHz subcarrier conveying binary phase-shift keying modulated data at 622 Mb/s. The BOSSM reduces the dispersion-induced power penalty in the link to less than 1.5 dB. Furthermore, the bit error rate of the link is increased by five orders of magnitude using the carrier suppression technique.

© 2003 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

E. Vergnol, F. Devaux, D. Tanguy and E. Pénard, "Integrated lightwave millimetric single side-band source: Design and issues", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1276-1284, July 1998 .

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, R. W. McElhanon, C. H. Bulmer and A. S. Greenblatt, "Performance and modeling of broadband LiNbO3 traveling wave optical intensity modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1807-1819, Oct. 1994.

M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, "Optical single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulator for wide-band signal processing", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 859-863, May 1998.

H. Chung, W. S. C. Chang and G. E. Betts, "Microwave properties of travelling-wave electrode in LiNbO3 electrooptic modulator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 1274-1278, Aug. 1993 .

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel and J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 1937-1940, Dec. 1993 .

Other (27)

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, A. S. Daryoush and N. R. Samant, "Maximum dynamic range operation of a microwave external modulation fiber-optic link", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech, vol. 41, pp. 1299 -1306, Aug. 1993.

N. Dagli, "Wide-bandwidth lasers and modulators for RF photonics", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 47, pp. 1151-1171, July 1999.

A. C. Lindsay, "An analysis of coherent carrier suppression techniques for photonic microwave links", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 47, pp. 1194-1200, July 1999.

G. Wenke and M. Klimmek, "Considerations on the a -factor of nonideal, external optical Mach-Zehnder modulators", J. Opt. Commun., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 42-48, 1996.

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, "Measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodetectors", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 502-504, July 1990.

A. R. Williams, A. L. Kellner and P. K. L. Yu, "High frequency saturation measurements of an Ingaas/Inp waveguide photodetector", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 14, pp. 1298-1299, 1993.

J. Paslaski, P. C. Chen, J. S. Chen and N. Bar-Chaim, "High-power microwave photodiode for high-dynamic-range analog transmission", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference, vol. 4, Washington, DC, 1994, pp. 208- 209.

A. Loayssa, D. Benito and M. J. Garde, "Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electrooptic modulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 869 -871, 2001.

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, "Wideband efficiency improvement of fiber optic systems by carrier substraction", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 218 -220, 1995.

M. L. Farwell, W. S. C. Chang and D. R. Huber, "Increased linear dynamic range by low biasing the Mach-Zehnder modulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 779-782, July 1993.

A. B. Carlson, Communication Systems, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986, pp. 218-216.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi and M. Izutsu, "Single side-band modulation performance of a LiNbO3 integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 364 -366, Apr. 2001.

K. Higuma, S. Oikawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Nagata and M. Izutsu, "X-cut lithium niobate optical single-sideband modulator", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 515-516, 2001.

K. Yonenaga and N. Takachio, "A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 949-951, July 1995.

M. Sieben, J. Conradi and D. Dodds, "Optical single sideband transmission at 10 Gb/s using only electrical dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1742-1749, Oct. 1999.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak and Z. Ahmed, "Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 45, pp. 1410-1415, Aug. 1997 .

J. L. Corral and J. Marti, "Single sideband optical modulation on chirped fiber grating based delay lines for optically controlled phased array antennas", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 761-762, 1999.

J. M. Fuster, D. Novak, A. Nirmalathas and J. Marti, "Single-sideband modulation in photonic time-stretch analogue-to-digital conversion", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 67-68, 2001.

J. E. Román, M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, "Spectral characterization of fiber gratings with high resolution", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 939-941, 1998.

L. A. Johansson and A. J. Seeds, "Millimeter-wave modulated optical signal generation with high spectral purity and wide-locking bandwidth using a fiber-integrated optical injection phase lock loop", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 690-692, June 2000.

D. Wake, C. R. Lima and P. A. Davies, "Optical generation of millimeter-wave signals for fiber-radio systems using a dual-mode DFB semiconductor laser", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 43, pp. 2270-2276, Sept. 1995.

J. Park, W. V. Sorin and K. Y. Lau, "Elimination of the fiber chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 512-513, 1997.

H. Toda, T. Yamashita, K. Kitayama and T. Kuri, "A DWDM MM-wave fiber-radio system by optical frequency interleaving for high spectral efficiency", in Proc. MWP'2001, 2002, pp. 85-88.

E. Vourch, D. Le Berre and D. Hervé, "Lightwave single sideband wavelength self-tunable filter using an InP:Fe crystal for fiber-wireless systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 194-196, Feb. 2002.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak and Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 74-75, 1997.

B. Davies and J. Conradi, "Hybrid modulator structures for subcarrier and harmonic subcarrier optical single sideband", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 600-602, Apr. 1998.

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama and T. Sueta, "Integrated optical SSB modulator/frequency shifter", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-17, pp. 2225-2227, 1981.

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