Abstract

We propose a novel hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) based on such techniques as clustering, sharing, crowding, and adaptive probability. The proposed GA can effectively solve multimodal optimization, including the global and local optima in the distributed multipump Raman amplifier (DMRA). The simulation results show that the optimal signal bandwidth Delta lambda can be evidently broadened by means of increasing the number of pumps and that Delta lambda decreases with the increase of Raman gain and the improvement of the flatness property. The optimal results show that the hybrid erbium-doped fiber amplifier and DMRA can availably overcome the weakness of pure DMRA and that both higher gain and broader bandwidth can be realized in hybrid amplifiers simultaneously.

© 2003 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Other (30)

P. C. Xiao, Q. J. Zeng, J. Huang and J. M. Liu, "A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 206-208, 2003.

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, "Optimal design of fiber Raman amplifier based on hybrid genetic algorithm", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, Feb. 2004. to be published.

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, New York: Addison-Wesley, 1989.

M. Srinivas and L. M. Patnaik, "Adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation in genetic algorithms", IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 24, pp. 656-667, Apr. 1994.

F. Herrera and M. Lozano, "Adaptive genetic operators based on coevolution with fuzzy behaviors", IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol. 5, pp. 149-165, Apr. 2001.

X. M. Liu, "Comments on `A novel method for Raman amplifier propagation equations", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, p. 1321, Sept. 2003.

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, "A fast and stable method for Raman amplifier propagation equations", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 18, pp. 2163 -2176, Sept. 2003.

P. Kim, J. Park, H. Yoon, J. Park and N. Park, "In situ design method for multichannel gain of a distributed Raman amplifier with multiwave OTDR", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 1683-1685, 2002.

X. M. Liu and B. Lee, "Effective shooting algorithm and its application to fiber amplifiers", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1452 -1461, Jun. 2003.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology , London: U.K.: Academic, 1999.

M. N. Islam, "Raman amplifiers for telecommunications", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, pp. 548-559, 2002.

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K. Suzuki and K. Aida, "Wide-bandwidth and long-distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 886-888, 1999.

H. Suzuki, J. Kani, H. Masuda, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, Y. Tada and M. Sumida, "1-Tb/s (100 × 10 Gb/s) super-dense WDM Transmission with 25-GHz channel spacing in the zero-dispersion region employing distributed Raman amplification technology", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 903-905, 2000.

T. N. Nielsen, A. J. Stentz, K. Rottwitt, D. S. Vengsarkar, Z. J. Chen, P. B. Hansen, J. H. Park, K. S. Feder, S. Cabot, S. Stulz, D. W. Peckham, L. Hsu, C. K. Kan, A. F. Judy, S. Y. Park, L. E. Nelson and L. Gruner-Nielson, "3.28-Tb/s transmission over 3 × 100 km nonzero-dispersion fiber using dual C-and L-band distributed Raman amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1079-1081, 2000.

A. Carena, V. Curri and P. Poggiolini, "On the optimization of hybrid Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1170-1172, 2001.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, pp. 3-16, 2001 .

N. Kikuchi, K. K. Wong, K. Uesaka, K. Shimizu, S. Yam, E. S. Hu, M. Marhic and L. G. Kazovsky, "Novel in-service wavelength-band upgrade scheme for fiber Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 27-29, Jan. 2003.

H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K.-I. Suzuki and K. Aida, "Ultrawide 75-nm 3-dB gain-band optical amplification with erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers and distributed Raman amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 516 -518, 1998.

H. Masuda and S. Kawai, "Wide-band and gain-flattened hybrid fiber amplifier consisting of an EDFA and a multiwavelength pumped Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 647-649, Jun. 1999.

S. W. Mahfoud, "Niching methods for genetic algorithms", Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 1995. .

S. Bandyopadhyay and U. Maulik, "An evolutionary technique based on K-means algorithm for optimal clustering in RN", Inform. Sci., vol. 146, pp. 221-237, 2002.

J. K Kim, D. H. Cho, H. K. Jung and C. G. Lee, "Niching genetic algorithm adopting restricted competition selection combined with pattern search method", IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 1001-1104, 2002.

S. W. Mahfoud, "Crowding and preselection revisited," in Parallel Problem Solving From Nature, R. Manner, and B. Manderick, Eds. Amsterdam: The Netherlands: Elsevier Science, 1992,vol. 2, pp. 27-36.

B. L. Miller and M. J. Shaw, "Genetic algorithms with dynamic niche sharing for multimodal function optimization,"in Proc. 1996 IEEE Int. Conf. Evolutionary Computation, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1996, pp. 786-791.

D. Thierens and D. E. Goldberg, "Elitist recombination: an integrated selection recombination GA", in Proc. 1st IEEE Conf. Evolutionary Computation, 1994, pp. 508- 512.

X. Yin and N. Germay, "A fast genetic algorithm with sharing scheme using cluster analysis methods in multimodal function optimization," in Proc. Int. Conf. Innsbruck Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, R. F. Albrecht, C. Reeves, N. C. Steele, Eds. Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1993, pp. 450-457.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen and X. Li, "Automatic design scheme for optical-fiber Raman amplifiers backward-pumped with multiple laser diode pumps", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 948-950, 2001.

X. Zhou, C. Lu, P. Shum and T. H. Cheng, "A simplified model and optimal design of a multiwavelength backward-pumped Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 945-947, Sept. 2001.

Y. Emori and S. Namiki, "Broadband Raman amplifier for WDM", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E84-0C, pp. 593-597, Sept. 2001.

V. E. Perlin and H. G. Winful, "Efficient design method for multi-pump flat-gain fiber Raman amplifiers", in OFC'02, 2002, pp. 57-59.

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