Abstract

The performance (bandwidth, sensitivity, and spatial resolution) of a fiber edge magnetooptic (FEMO) probe developed for observing three-dimensional magnetic-field distributions was evaluated. A gigahertz bandwidth was achieved without any magnetic bias by using the magnetization rotation in a magnetooptic crystal. The ferromagnetic resonance restricted the observation bandwidth to around 10 GHz. Precise adjustment of the polarization and efficient use of the optical amplifier enhanced the magnetic field sensitivity, enabling an electric current of less than 0.05 mA to be detected. The concept of"sensitive volume"was used to measure the spatial resolution in three-dimensional space; reducing the sensitive volume improved the spatial resolution. Magnetic fields above a microwave patch antenna and around a 10-µm-class circuit board were observed using FEMO probes. The FEMO probe should thus be effective for evaluating microwave and miniature circuits.

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, "Subpicoecond electrical sampling and applications,"in Picosecond Optoelectronic Devices, New York: Academic, 1984, pp. 249-270.
  2. J. A. Valdmanis and S. S. Pei, "A noncontact electro-optic prober for high speed integrated circuits,"in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics II, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1987, pp. 4-10.
  3. in"1994 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig.", vol. 3, 1994, pp. 1597-1600.
  4. Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan and D. A. Jackson, "Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 66, pp. 3097-3111, 1995.
  5. M. R. Freeman, "Picosecond pulsed-field probes of magnetic systems", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 75, pp. 6194-6198, 1994.
  6. E. Yamazaki, S. Wakana, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "10 GHz-class magneto-optic field sensing with bi-substituted rare-earth ion garnet rotation magnetization employed", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 41, pp. 904-907, 2002.
  7. H. Ikekame, K. Nakamoto, N. Nishiyama, T. Tsuyoshi and H. Aoi, "In-situ magnetooptical probing for high-frequency current in magnetic head", in Dig. 26th Annu. Conf. Magnetics Japan, vol. 26, 2002, p. 262.
  8. E. Yamazaki, H. Park, S. Wakana, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "Implementation of magneto-optic probe with > 10 GHz bandwidth", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 41, pp. L864-L866, 2002.
  9. E. Yamazaki, S. Wakana, H. Park, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "High frequency magneto-optic probe based on BiRIG rotation magnetization", IEICE Trans. Electron. , to be published.
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  11. T. Ohara, M. Abe, S. Wakana, M. Kishi, M. Tsuchiya and S. Kawasaki, "Two-dimensional field mapping of microstrip lines with a band pass filter or a photonic bandgap structure by fiber-optic EO spectrum analysis system", in Tech. Dig. Int. Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics, Oxford, 2000, pp. 210- 213.
  12. R. Karim, K. D. Mckinstry, J. R. Trudson and C. E. Patton, "Frequency dependence of the FMR linewidth in single crystal barium ferrite platelets", IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 28, pp. 3225-3227, 1992.
  13. Y. Iijima, Y. Houjou and R. Sato, "Millimeter wave absorber using M-type hexagonal ferrite", in Int. Symp. Electromagnetic Compatibility, Washington, DC, 2000, pp. 547-549.
  14. A. Y. Elezzabi, , private communication, Nov. 2001
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  22. R. Wolfe, J. Hegarty, L. C. Luther and D. L. Wood, "Single mode magneto-optic waveguide film", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 48, pp. 508-510, 1986.
  23. K. Yang, G. David, J. G. Yook, I. Papapolymerou, L. P. B. Katehi and J. F. Whitaker, "Electrooptic mapping and finite element modeling of the near-field pattern of a microstrip patch antenna", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 48, pp. 288 -294, 2000.
  24. Sonnet lite. Sonnet Software Inc. [Online]. Available: http://www.sonnetusa.com
  25. E. Yamazaki, S. Wakana, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "Three-dimensional magneto-optic near field mapping over 10-50 µm-scale line and space circuit patterns", in 14th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2001), San Diego, CA, Nov. 2001,TuW6,. pp. 318-319.
  26. B. Stadler, K. Vaccaro, P. Yip, J. Lorenzo, Y. Q. Li and M. Cherif, "Integration of magneto-optical garnet films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition", IEEE Trans. Magn. , vol. 38, pp. 1564-1567, 2002.

Other (26)

J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, "Subpicoecond electrical sampling and applications,"in Picosecond Optoelectronic Devices, New York: Academic, 1984, pp. 249-270.

J. A. Valdmanis and S. S. Pei, "A noncontact electro-optic prober for high speed integrated circuits,"in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics II, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1987, pp. 4-10.

in"1994 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig.", vol. 3, 1994, pp. 1597-1600.

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan and D. A. Jackson, "Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 66, pp. 3097-3111, 1995.

M. R. Freeman, "Picosecond pulsed-field probes of magnetic systems", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 75, pp. 6194-6198, 1994.

E. Yamazaki, S. Wakana, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "10 GHz-class magneto-optic field sensing with bi-substituted rare-earth ion garnet rotation magnetization employed", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 41, pp. 904-907, 2002.

H. Ikekame, K. Nakamoto, N. Nishiyama, T. Tsuyoshi and H. Aoi, "In-situ magnetooptical probing for high-frequency current in magnetic head", in Dig. 26th Annu. Conf. Magnetics Japan, vol. 26, 2002, p. 262.

E. Yamazaki, H. Park, S. Wakana, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "Implementation of magneto-optic probe with > 10 GHz bandwidth", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 41, pp. L864-L866, 2002.

E. Yamazaki, S. Wakana, H. Park, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "High frequency magneto-optic probe based on BiRIG rotation magnetization", IEICE Trans. Electron. , to be published.

S. Wakana, T. Ohara, M. Abe, E. Yamazaki, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "Fiber-edge electrooptic/magnetooptic probe for spectral domain analysis of electromagnetic field", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 48, pp. 2611-2616, 2000.

T. Ohara, M. Abe, S. Wakana, M. Kishi, M. Tsuchiya and S. Kawasaki, "Two-dimensional field mapping of microstrip lines with a band pass filter or a photonic bandgap structure by fiber-optic EO spectrum analysis system", in Tech. Dig. Int. Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics, Oxford, 2000, pp. 210- 213.

R. Karim, K. D. Mckinstry, J. R. Trudson and C. E. Patton, "Frequency dependence of the FMR linewidth in single crystal barium ferrite platelets", IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 28, pp. 3225-3227, 1992.

Y. Iijima, Y. Houjou and R. Sato, "Millimeter wave absorber using M-type hexagonal ferrite", in Int. Symp. Electromagnetic Compatibility, Washington, DC, 2000, pp. 547-549.

A. Y. Elezzabi, , private communication, Nov. 2001

J. E. Lenz, "A review of magnetic sensors", Proc. IEEE , vol. 78, pp. 973-989, 1990.

S. Mitani, E. Yamazaki, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "Sensitivity enhancement by optical pre-amplification combined with bias optimization in fiber-optical probing systems for electromagnetic field measurements", in 4th Korea-Japan Joint Workshop Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Photonics P-14, Daejon, Korea, 2003.

E. Yamazaki, "10 GHz-class magneto-optic probe", Master's thesis, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 2002. .

T. Nagatsuma, T. Shibata, E. Sano and A. Iwata, "Subpicosecond sampling using a noncontact electro-optic probe", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 66, pp. 4001-4009, 1989.

S. Wakana, E. Yamazaki, M. Iwanami, S. Hoshino, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "Study of a crystal size effect on spatial resolution in three-dimensional measurement of fine electromagnetic field distribution by optical probing", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , to be published.

J. Gouzerh and A. A. Stashkevlch, "Influence of laser annealing on the index of refraction of a Bi, Ga-doped garnet film", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 69, pp. 5975-5977, 1991.

T. Izuhara, J. Fujita, M. Levy and R. M. Osgood, "Integration of magnetooptical waveguides onto a III-V semiconductor surface", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 167-169, 2002.

R. Wolfe, J. Hegarty, L. C. Luther and D. L. Wood, "Single mode magneto-optic waveguide film", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 48, pp. 508-510, 1986.

K. Yang, G. David, J. G. Yook, I. Papapolymerou, L. P. B. Katehi and J. F. Whitaker, "Electrooptic mapping and finite element modeling of the near-field pattern of a microstrip patch antenna", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 48, pp. 288 -294, 2000.

Sonnet lite. Sonnet Software Inc. [Online]. Available: http://www.sonnetusa.com

E. Yamazaki, S. Wakana, M. Kishi and M. Tsuchiya, "Three-dimensional magneto-optic near field mapping over 10-50 µm-scale line and space circuit patterns", in 14th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2001), San Diego, CA, Nov. 2001,TuW6,. pp. 318-319.

B. Stadler, K. Vaccaro, P. Yip, J. Lorenzo, Y. Q. Li and M. Cherif, "Integration of magneto-optical garnet films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition", IEEE Trans. Magn. , vol. 38, pp. 1564-1567, 2002.

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