Abstract

This paper compares methods of active stabilization of an optoelectronic microwave oscillator (OEO) based on insertion of a source of optical group delay into an OEO loop. The performance of an OEO stabilized with either a high-Q optical cavity or an atomic cell is analyzed. We show that the elements play a role of narrow-band microwave filters improving an OEO stability. An atomic cell also allows for locking the oscillation frequency to particular atomic clock transitions. This reports a proof-of-principle experiment on an OEO stabilization using the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency in a hot rubidium atomic vapor cell.

© 2003 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (20)

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer and H. G. Robinson, "Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 680-682, 1981.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, "Optoelectronic microwave oscillator", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 13, pp. 1725-1735, 1996.

Y. Ji, X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, "Compact optoelectronic oscillator with ultralow phase noise performance", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1554-1555, 1999.

T. Davidson, P. Goldgeier, G. Eisenstein and M. Orenstein, "High spectral purity CW oscillation and pulse generation in optoelectronic microwave oscillator", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1260-1261, 1999.

S. Romisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferre-Pikal, L. Hollberg and F. L. Walls, "Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator", IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Contr., vol. 47, pp. 1159-1165, 2000.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, "Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, pp. 79-84, 2000.

S. Poinsot, H. Porte, J. P. Goedgebuer, W. T. Rhodes and B. Boussert, "Continuous radio-frequency tuning of an optoelectronic oscillator with dispersive feedback", Opt. Lett. , vol. 27, pp. 1300-1302, 2002.

D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang and W. H. Steier, "39-GHz optoelectronic oscillator using broad-band polymer electrooptic modulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 191-193, 2002.

E. Arimondo, "Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy", Progress Opt., vol. 35, pp. 257-354, 1996.

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency", Phys. Today, vol. 50, pp. 36-42, 1997.

J. P. Marangos, "Topical review on electromagnetically induced transparency", J. Mod. Opt., vol. 45, pp. 471 -503, 1998.

A. B. Matsko, O. Kocharovskaya, Y. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, A. S. Zibrov and M. O. Scully, "Slow, ultraslow, stored and frozen light", Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys., vol. 46, p. 191, 2001.

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauther, "Slow and fast light", Progress Opt., vol. 43, pp. 497-530, 2002.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas", Nature, vol. 397, pp. 594-598, 1999.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 5229-5232, 1999.

D. Budker, D. Kimball, S. Rochester and V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optics and reduced group velocity of light in atomic vapor with slow ground state relaxation", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 83, pp. 1767-1770, 1999.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 88, p. 023 602, 2002.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin and R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultrasolw light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, p. 113 903, 2003.

J. Kitching, S. Knappe and L. Hollberg, "Miniature vapor-cell atomic-frequency references", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, pp. 553-555, 2002.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg and M. O. Scully, "Spectroscopy of dense coherent media: Line narrowing and interference effects", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 2959-2963, 1999.

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