Abstract

In this paper, we carry out a systematic study on the interaction between ultrashort optical pulses and fiber Bragg grating structures operating in the linear regime. Our study is based on the joint time-frequency representation (spectrogram) of the reflection impulse response from the grating structures under analysis. By means of such a representation we get to visualize in a single image all the relevant information concerning the optical and dispersive behavior of the grating structures and more importantly, we obtain information on the pulse-grating interaction process, which otherwise is not accessible from any other method. Here, we analyze uniform and nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings. The effects of the apodization of the coupling coefficient and chirp of the grating period on the macroscopic optical properties of the considered gratings are investigated. Furthermore, we extend our analysis to more complicated in-fiber grating structures such as concatenated gratings, Fabry-Pérot-like grating structures, and superimposed gratings. The results of our study indicate that the time-frequency methods constitute a powerful tool for the analysis and design of fiber Bragg grating structures.

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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

F. Oullette, J.-F. Cliche and S. Gagnon, "All-Fiber devices for chromatic dispersion compensation based on chirped distributed resonant coupling", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1728-1738, Oct. 1994.

Other (32)

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin and R. I. Laming, "Chirped moiré fiber gratings operating on two-wavelength channels for use as dual-channel dispersion compensators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 84 -86, 1998.

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, "Simultaneous multi-wavelength real-time optical spectrum analysis", Appl. Opt., vol. 40, no. 23, pp. 3831 -3842, 2001.

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1999.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1999.

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, 1997.

R. R. A. Syms, S. Makrimichalou and A. S. Holmes, "High-speed optical signal processing potential of grating-coupled waveguide filters", Appl. Opt., vol. 30, no. 26, pp. 3762-3769, 1991.

R. R. A. Syms and S. Makrimichalou, "Impulse response of grating-coupled waveguide filters by optical path integration in the time domain", Appl. Opt. , vol. 31, no. 30, pp. 6453-6458, 1992.

K. B. Hill and D. J. Brady, "Impulse responses of strong reflection holograms", Appl. Opt., vol. 32, no. 23, pp. 4305-4316, 1993.

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe and S. Juma, "Ultrashort pulse propagation in multiple-grating fiber structures", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 402-405, 1997.

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith and J. E. Sipe, "Ultrashort pulse reflection fro fiber gratings: A numerical investigation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1503-1512, 1997.

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, H. Jung, P. W. E. Smith and J. E. Sipe, "Dynamics of ultrashort pulse propagation through fiber gratings", Opt. Express, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 242 -249, 1997.

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith and J. E. Sipe, "Applications of ultrashort pulse propagation in bragg gratings for wavelength-division multiplexing and code-division multiple acces", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 2117-2129, 1998.

K. Rottwitt, M. J. Guy, A. Boskovic, D. U. Noske, J. R. Taylor and R. Kashyap, "Interaction of uniform phase picosecond pulses with chirped and unchirped photosensitive fiber Bragg gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 995-996, 1994.

J. E. Sipe, L. Poladian and C. Martijn De Sterke, "Propagation through nonuniform grating structures", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1307-1320, 1994.

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. S. J. Russell and D. N. Payne, "Experimental investigation of picosecond pulse reflection from fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 282-284, 1995.

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, "Real-Time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 517-527, 2000.

J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, M. A. Muriel and P. W. E. Smith, "Experimental demonstration of real-time fourier transformation using linearly chirped fiber bragg gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 25, pp. 2223-2224, 1999.

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, "Technique for multiplying the repetition rates of periodic trains of pulses by means of a temporal self-imaging effect in chirped fiber gratings", Opt. Lett. , vol. 24, no. 23, pp. 1672-1674, 1999.

L. Cohen, Time-Frequency Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995.

S. Qian and D. Chen, Joint Time-Frequency Analysis: Methods and Applications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996.

"Special issue on time-frequency analysis", Proc. IEEE, vol. 84, no. 9, 1996.

K. Mochizuki, M. Fujise, M. Kuwazuru, M. Nunokawa and Y. Iwamoto, "Optical fiber dispersion measurement technique using streak camera", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 1, pp. 119-124, 1987 .

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating", Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 823-825, 1993.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 571-579, 1993.

M. A. Muriel, J. Azaña and A. Carballar, "Fiber grating synthesis by use of time-frequency representations", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 19, pp. 1526-1528, 1998.

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, "Reconstructing arbitrary strain distributions within fiber gratings by time-frequency signal analysis", Opt. Lett. , vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 698-700, 2000.

E. Peral and J. Capmany, "Generalized bloch wave analysis for fiber and waveguide gratings", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1295-1302, 1997.

M. A. Muriel, A. Carballar and J. Azaña, "Field distributions inside fiber gratings", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 548-558, 1999.

G. E. Town, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion and S. B. Poole, "Wide-band Fabry-Pérot-like filters in optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 78-80, MONTH??? 1995.

A. Othonos, X. Lee and R. M. Measures, "Superimposed multiple bragg gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 23, pp. 1972-1974, 1994.

M. Yamada and K. Sakuda, "Analysis of almost-periodic distributed feedback slab waveguides via a fundamental matrix approach", Appl. Opt., vol. 26, no. 16, pp. 3474-3478, 1987.

S. Huang, M. LeBlanc, M. M. Ohn and R. M. Measures, "Bragg intragrating structural sensing", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 22, pp. 5003-5009, 1995.

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