Abstract

We describe an experimental realization of ultra-long-haul (ULH) networks with dynamically reconfigurable transparent optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) and optical cross-connects (OXCs). A simple new approach to dispersion management in ULH dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) transparent optical networks is proposed and implemented, which enables excellent transmission performance while avoiding dispersion compensation on a connection-by-connection basis. We demonstrate"broadcast-and-select"node architectures that take full advantage of this method. Our implementation of signal leveling ensures minimum variations of path-averaged power among the wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) channels between the dynamic gain-equalizing nodes and results in uniform nonlinear and spontaneous-emission penalties across the WDM spectrum. We achieve 80×10.7-Gb/s DWDM networking over 4160 km (52 spans×80 km each) of all-Raman-amplified symmetric dispersion-managed fiber and 13 concatenated OADMs or 320×320 wavelength-port OXCs with 320-km node spacing. The WDM channels use 50-GHz grid in C band and the simple nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. The measured Qvalues exhibit more than a 1.8-dB margin over the forward-error correction threshold for 10-15 bit-error-rate operation. We compare these results with point-to-point transmission of 80 ×10-Gb/s NRZ WDM signals over 4160 km without OADM/OXC and provide detailed characterization of penalties due to optical signal-to-noise-ratio degradation, filter concatenation, and crosstalk.

© 2003 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Other (25)

K. Ennser and V. L. DaSilva, "Impact of optical amplifier gain shape in dense WDM systems", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Nice, France, 1999, pp. I-284-I-285.

A. R. Ranalli, B. A. Scott and J. P. Kondis, "Liquid crystal based wavelength selectable cross-connect", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, 1999, pp. 68-69.

P. Bayvel and R. Killey, "Nonlinear optical effects in WDM transmission," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB, I. Kaminow, and T. Li, Eds. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2002.

A. Ehrhardt, N. Hanik, A. Gladisch and F. Rumpf, "Field demonstration of a transparent optical 10 Gb/s WDM network based on normalized transmission sections", in OSA Trends Optics Photonics, vol. 70, Washington, DC, 2002, pp. 42-43.

I. Tomkos, M. Vasilyev, J.-K. Rhee, A. Kobyakov, M. Ajgaonkar and M. Sharma, "Dispersion map design for 10 Gb/s ultra-long-haul DWDM transparent optical networks", presented at the Opto Electronics Communications Conf., Yokohama, Japan,PD-1-2, July 2002.

D. Penninckx, G. Charlet, J.-C. Antona and L. Noirie, "Experiimental validation of a transparent wave-band-based optical backbone network", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Copenhagen, Denmark,6.4.4, Sept. 2002 .

G. Vareille, B. Julien, F. Pitel and J. F. Marcerou, "3.65 Tbit/s (365 × 11.6 Gbit/s) transmission experiment over 6850 km using 22.2 Ghz channel spacing in NRZ format", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,PD.M.1.7, Sept. 2001.

R. Hainberger, T. Hoshida, T. Terahara and H. Onaka, "Comparison of span configurations of Raman-amplified dispersion-managed fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 471-473, Apr. 2002.

T. Tsuritani, A. Agata, I. Morita and N. Edagawa, "21.4 Gbit/s × 56 WDM 9170 km transmission using symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1536-1538, 2001.

K. Shimizu, K. Ishida, K. Kinjo, T. Kobayashi, S. Kajiya, T. Tokura, T. Kogure, K. Motoshima and T. Mizuochi, "65 × 22.8 Gb/s WDM transmission over 8,398 km employing symmetrically collided transmission with Aeff management", in OSA Trends Optics Photonics, vol. 70, Washington, DC, 2002, pp. 364-365.

M. Mehendale, M. Vasilyev, A. Kobyakov, M. Williams and S. Tsuda, "All-Raman transmission of 80 × 10 Gb/s WDM signals with 50 Ghz spacing over 4160 km of dispersion-managed fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 648-649, 2002.

S. N. Knudsen, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, M. Ø. Pederson, D. W. Peckham and S. Stulz, "420 Gbit/s (42 × 10 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 4000 km of ultrawave fiber with 100 km dispersion-managed spans and distributed Raman amplification", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 965-967, 2001.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, L. E. Nelson, S. Knudsen, J. Bromage, D. Peckham, S. Stulz, K. Brar, C. Horn, K. Feder, H. Thiele and T. Veng, "1.6 Tb/s (40 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 2000 km of fiber with 100-km dispersion-managed spans", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,PD.M.1.8, Sept. 2001.

F. Liu, J. Bennike, S. Dey, C. Rasmussen, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, D. Gapontsev and V. Ivshin, "1.6 Tbit/s (40 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 3600 km ultrawave fiber with all-Raman amplified 100 km terrestrial spans using ETDM transmitter and receiver", Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Tech. Dig., pp. PD FC7-1-FC7-3, 2002.

A. R. Chraplyvy, J. A. Nagel and R. W. Tkach, "Equalization in amplified WDM lightwave transmission systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 920-922, Aug. 1992.

A. Solheim and J. Frodsham, "Next generation backbone networks", in Proc. Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC'01), 2001, pp. 1283-1289.

J.-K. Rhee, I. Tomkos, M. Vasilyev and L. Nederlof, "Ultra-long-haul DWDM network studies with cost-effective reconfigurable OADMs," in Optical Transmission Systems and Equipment for WDM Networking, B. Dingle, Ed. 2002, vol. 4872, pp. 121-128.

A. F. Evans, A. Kobyakov and M. Vasilyev, "Distributed Raman transmission: Applications and fiber issues," in Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications, M. N. Islam, Ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003, vol. 2.

I. Haxell, N. Robinson, A. Akhtar, M. Ding and R. Haigh, "2410 km all-optical network field trial with 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission", Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Tech. Dig., pp. PD41-1-PD41-3, 2000.

D. Chen, S. Wheeler, D. Nguyen, B. Davis, M. Glavanovic, J. Khaydarov, I. Koruga, S. Hegarty, F. Cokic and F. Zhu, "40 channels 4000 km DWDM ULH transmission field trial without Raman amplification and regeneration", Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Tech. Dig., pp. PD FC10-1-FC10-3, 2002.

I. Tomkos, M. Vasilyev, J.-K. Rhee, M. Mehendale, B. Hallock, B. Szalabofka, M. Williams, S. Tsuda and M. Sharma, "80 × 10.7 Gb/s ultra-long-haul (+4200 km) DWDM network with reconfigurable"broadcast & select"OADM's", Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Tech. Dig., pp. PD FC1-1-FC1-3, 2002.

I. Tomkos, M. Vasilyev, J.-K. Rhee, M. Mehendale, B. Hallock, B. Szalabofka, M. Williams, S. Tsuda and M. Sharma, "Ultra-long-haul DWDM network with 320 × 320 wavelength-port"broadcast & select"OXC's", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Copenhagen, Denmark,Sept. 2002,Postdeadline Paper PD2.1.

J.-K. Rhee, M.-J. Li, P. Iydroose, M. Zhao, B. Hallock, I. Tomkos and M. Ajgaonkar, "A novel 240-Gb/s channel-by-channel dedicated optical protection ring network using wavelength selective switches", Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Tech. Dig., pp. PD38-1-PD38-3, 2001.

A. Boskovic, M. Sharma, N. Antoniades and M. Lee, "Broadcast and select OADM nodes: Application and performance trade-offs", in OSA Trends Optics Photonics, vol. 70, Washington, DC, 2002, pp. 158-159.

M. Vasilyev, B. Szalabofka, S. Tsuda, J. M. Grochocinski and A. F. Evans, "Reduction of Raman MPI and noise figure in dispersion-managed fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 271-272, 2002.

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