Abstract

In this paper, we present a new concept of optical packet/burst switching suitable for generalized multiprotocol label switched (GMPLS)-based optical networks. In such networks, optical labeled switched Paths are being established in a similar way as label-switched paths in MPLS. We use a wavelength label as well as an orthogonally modulated label, with respect to the payload modulation format, and which is encoded using either frequency-shift keying (FSK) or differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). Wavelength is used for switching in the node, whereas the orthogonal label defines the label-switched path. We present both simulation and experimental results to assess transmission performance of the proposed combined modulation scheme. In addition, we propose a suitable optical node architecture that can take advantage of this stacked label concept. Toward this, we use widely tunable wavelength converters to efficiently route IM/FSK (or IM/DPSK) optically labeled packets in an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG)-based node structure. We present performance simulation results in terms of packet loss ratio and internal block probability. Internal blocking is an inherent problem of AWG optical routers, and a specific wavelength assignment algorithm has been developed to minimize it. Finally, the feasibility of IM/FSK transmission is experimentally demonstrated over an 88-km single-mode fiber span, and novel aspects of FSK generation and detection techniques are presented.

© 2003 IEEE

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  37. J. Zhang, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret and P. Jeppesen, "A novel optical labeling scheme using a FSK modulated DFB laser integrated with an EA modulator", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'03), 2003.
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  39. S. O'Duill, G. Mulvihill, Y. Yu and R. O'Dowd, "FSK modulation labeling performance of WDM C-band lasers for packet routing", FSK modulation labeling performance of WDM C-band lasers for packet routing,

J. Lightwave Technol. (9)

C. Guillemot, M. Renaud, P. Gambini, C. Janz, I. Andonovic, R. Bauknecht, B. Bostica, M. Burzio, F. Callegati, M. Casoni, D. Chiaroni, F. Clerot, S. L. Danielsen, F. Dorgeuille, A. Dupas, A. Franzen, P. B. Hansen, D. K. Hunter and A. Kloch, "Transparent optical packet switching: The European ACTS KEOPS project approach", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 2117-2134, Dec. 1998.

H. Rongqing, Z. Benyuan, H. Renxiang, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest and D. Richards, "Subcarrier multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 417-427, Mar. 2002.

Z. Haas, "The `staggering switch': An electronically controlled optical packet switch", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 925-936, May-June 1993.

D. Hunter, et al. "SLOB: A switch with large optical buffers for packet switching", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1725-1736, Oct. 1998.

D. J. Blumenthal, B.-E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren and J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 2058-2075, Dec. 2000.

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Analysis of a WDM packet switch with improved performance under bursty traffic conditions due to tuneable wavelength converters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 729-735, May 1998.

S. L. Danielsen, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, T. Durhuus and K. E. Stubkjaer, "WDM packet switch architectures and analysis of the influence of tunable wavelength converters on the performance", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 219-227, Feb. 1997 .

Y. Yonglin and R. O'Dowd, "Influence of mode competition on the fast wavelength switching of an SG-DBR laser", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 700-704, Apr. 2002.

M. Hickey and L. Kazovsky, "The STARNET coherent WDM computer communication network: Experimental transceiver employing a novel modulation format", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 876-884, May 1994.

Other (30)

J. Zhang, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret and P. Jeppesen, "A novel optical labeling scheme using a FSK modulated DFB laser integrated with an EA modulator", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'03), 2003.

R. O'Dowd, S. O'Duill, G. Mulvihill and Y. Yu, "Frequency plan and wavelength switching limits for widely tunable transmitters", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 7, pp. 259-269, Mar./Apr. 2001.

S. O'Duill, G. Mulvihill, Y. Yu and R. O'Dowd, "FSK modulation labeling performance of WDM C-band lasers for packet routing", FSK modulation labeling performance of WDM C-band lasers for packet routing,

H. Nakajima and J. Charil, "Time-resolved spectrum characteristics of FSK-modulated dual-mode DFB/DBR lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 821-823, June 1997.

E. Zouganeli, A. F. Mlonyeni, A. Sudbo, O.-P. Rostad and T. Olsen, "Wavelength routed network using widely tunable transmitters", in Proc. ECOC'2000, Munich, Germany,Sept. <day>3-7</day> 2000 .

A. Sudbø, S. Bjørnstad and E. Zouganeli, "Scalable optical switch based on tunable wavelength converters and arrayed waveguide grating routers", presented at the OFC'2003,.

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, A. Ackaert, M. Pickavet and P. Demeester, "Routing in an AWG based optical packet switch", Photon. Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 69-80, Jan. 2003.

G. Chartrand and O. P. Oellermann, Applied and Algorithmic Graph Theory, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975, pp. 161-204.

B. Broberg, P. J. Rigole, S. Nilsson, M. Renlund and L. Andersson, "Widely tunable semiconductor lasers", IEEE/LEOS Soc. Annu. Meeting, vol. 2, pp. 151 -152, 1998.

H. Debrégeas-Sillard, A. Vuong, F. Delorme, J. David, V. Allard, A. Bodéré, O. LeGouezigou, F. Gaborit, J. Rotte, M. Goix, V. Voiriot and J. Jacquet, "DBR module with 20-mW constant coupled output power, over 16 nm (40× 50-GHz spaced channels)", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 4-6, Jan. 2001.

G. Morthier, G. Sarlet, R. Baets, R. O'Dowd, H. Ishii and Y. Yoshikuni, "The direct modulation bandwidth of widely tunable DBR laser diodes", in IEEE Semiconductor Laser Conf., 2000, pp. 87-88.

Sulur, T. Koonen, I. T. Monroy, H. de Waardt, J. Jennen and G. Morthier, "Combined ASK/FSK and ASK/DPSK modulation formats for optically labeled signals", in Proc. ONDM'2002, Torino, Italy,Feb. <day>4-6</day> 2002.

M. Renaud, F. Masetti, C. Guillemot and B. Bostica, "Network and system concepts for optical packet switching", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 35, pp. 96-102, Apr. 1997 .

O. H. Adamczyk, A. B. Sahin, Q. Yu, S. Lee and A. E. Willner, "Statistics of PMD-induced power fading for double sideband and single side-band subcarrier-multiplexed signals", in Proc. OFC'01, Anaheim, CA,MO5.

N. Ghani, "Lambda-labeling: A framework for IP-over-WDM using MPLS", Opt. Networks Mag., pp. 45-58, Apr. 2000.

T. Koonen, G. Morthier, J. J. Jennen, H. de Waardt and P. Demeester, "Optical packet routing in IP-over-WDM networks deploying two-level optical labeling", in 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication 2001, vol. 4, 2001, pp. 608-609.

D. Colle, S. De Maesschalck, C. Develder, P. Van Heuven, A. Groebbens, J. Cheyns, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Lagasse and P. Demeester, "Data-centric optical networks and their survivability", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 6-20, 2002.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee and S. Dixit, "Advances in photonic packet-switching: An overview", IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 84-93, Feb. 2000.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS) -A new paradigm for an optical internet", J. High Speed Networks (Special Issue on WDM Networks) , vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69-84, Jan. 1999.

J. S. Turner, "WDM burst switching for petabit data networks", in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. 2000, vol. 2, 2000, pp. 47-49.

A. Huang and S. Knauer, "Starlight: A wideband digital switch", in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (GLOBECOM'84), vol. 1, Nov. 1984, pp. 121-5.

Z. Haas and D. R. Cheriton, "Blazenet: A packet-switched wide-area network with photonic data path", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 38, pp. 818-829, June 1990.

D. Chiaroni, P. Bonno, O. Rofidal, J. C. Jacquinot, P. Poignant, C. Coeurjoly, F. Fernandez, E. Mestre, J. L. Moncelet, A. Noury, A. Jourdan, T. Zami, A. Dupas, M. Renaud, N. Sahri, D. Keller, S. Silvestre, G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, W. Lautenschlaeger and F. Masetti, "First demonstration of an asynchronous optical packet switching matrix prototype for multiterabit class routers/switches", in Proc. ECOC'01, vol. 6, pp. 60- 61.

S. Khalfallah, A. Dupas, B. Martin, D. Herrati, S. Fabre, N. Tscherptner, P. Peloso, I. Guillemot, J. L. Bris, M. Renaud, L. Gilbert, D. Penninckx, A. Gdth, C. Saboureau, D. Baillargeat, C. Moussam, C. Aupetit-Berthelemot and J.-M. Dumas, "Optical packet switching with lossless 16-channel InP monolithically integrated wavelength selector module", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 19, pp. 1124-1125, 2002 .

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. De Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic packet switching architecture", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, vol. 3, 1996, pp. 309-312.

B. E. Olsson, P. Öhlén, L. Rau, G. Rossi, O. Jerphagnon, R. Doshi, D. S. Humphries, D. J. Blumenthal, V. Kaman and J. E. Bowers, "Wavelength routing of 40 Gbit/s packets with 2.5 Gbit/s header erasure/rewriting sing all-fiber wavelength converter", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 345-347, Feb. 2000.

D. Hunter, M. Nizam, M. Chia, I. Andanovic, K. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. O'Mahony, J. Bainbridge, M. Stephens, R. Penty and I. White, "WASPNET: A wavelength switched packet network", IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 120-129, Mar. 1999.

A. Carena, M. D. Vaughn, R. Gaudino, M. Shell and D. J. Blumenthal, "OPERA: An optical packet experimental routing architecture with label swapping capability", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 16, pp. 2135-2145, Dec. 1998.

I. Chlamtac, et al. "CORD: Contention resolution by delay lines", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014-1029, June 1996.

K. V. Shrikhande, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, S. M. Gemelos, M. S. Rogge, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius and L. G. Kazovsky, "HORNET: A packet-over-WDM multiple access metropolitan area ring network", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 18, pp. 2004-2016, Oct. 2000.

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