Abstract

Several optical modulation and detection schemes are compared by computing their spectral efficiencies over additive white Gaussian noise channels. The bandwidth savings of differential quadrature phase-shift keying (D-QPSK) over both direct-detection on-off keying and differential binary phase-shift keying suggest that D-QPSK can improve the reach and efficiency of wavelength-division multiplexing systems. To test the theory, Reed-Solomon and low-density parity-check forward error correction codes are designed and evaluated. The codes generally behave as expected, except that for D-QPSK the gains are hampered by the differential detector. It is further shown that neither multiple-symbol differential detection nor decision-feedback detection is attractive when using strong codes.

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. A. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. P. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40× 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified link", in Proc. OFC 2002,.
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  4. J. Leibrich, C. Wree and W. Rosenkranz, "CF-RZ-DPSK for suppression of XPM on dispersion-managed long-haul optical WDM transmission on standard single-mode fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 155-157, Feb. 2002.
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  22. D. Divsalar and M. K. Simon, "Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK", IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 38, pp. 300 -308, Mar. 1990.
  23. H. Leib, "Data-aided noncoherent demodulation of DPSK", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, pp. 722-725, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1995.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Betti, F. Curti, G. De Marchis and E. Iannone, "A novel multilevel coherent optical system: 4-quadrature signaling", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 514-523, Apr. 1991.

S. Yamazaki and K. Emura, "Feasibility study on QPSK optical-heterodyne detection system", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1646-1653, Nov. 1990.

Other (25)

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita and K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gb/s QPSK optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 765-767, 1992.

H. Leib and S. Pasupathy, "The phase of a vector perturbed by Gaussian noise and differentially coherent receivers", IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 34, pp. 1491-1501, Nov. 1988.

D. Divsalar and M. K. Simon, "Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK", IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 38, pp. 300 -308, Mar. 1990.

H. Leib, "Data-aided noncoherent demodulation of DPSK", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, pp. 722-725, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1995.

I. S. Reed and G. Solomon, "Polynomial codes over certain finite fields", J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math., vol. 8, pp. 300-304, June 1960.

R. G. Gallager, "Low-density parity-check codes", IRE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-8, pp. 21-28, Jan. 1962.

T. J. Richardson and R. L. Urbanke, "The capacity of low-density parity-check codes under message-passing decoding", IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 47, pp. 599-618, Feb. 2001.

R. W. Lucky, J. Salz and E. J. Weldon Jr., Principles of Data Communication, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

C. E. Shannon, "Communication in the presence of noise", in Proc. IRE, vol. 37, Jan. 1949, pp. 10-21.

P. Poggiolini and S. Benedetto, "Theory of polarization spreading techniques-Part I", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 42, pp. 2105-2118, May 1994.

T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory, New York: Wiley, 1991.

C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 27, pp. 379-423 and 623-656, July and Oct. 1948.

S. Verdú, "Spectral efficiency in the wideband regime", IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 48, pp. 1319-1343, June 2002.

W. R. Bennet, "Methods of solving noise problems", in Proc. IRE, vol. 44, May 1956, pp. 609-638.

F. S. Weinstein, "Simplified relationships for the probability distribution of the phase of a sine wave in narrow-band normal noise", IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-20, pp. 658-661, Sept. 1974.

R. F. Pawula, S. O. Rice and J. H. Roberts, "Distribution of the phase angle between two vectors perturbed by Gaussian noise", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 30, pp. 1828-1841, Aug. 1982.

R. F. Pawula, "A new formula for MDPSK symbol error probability", IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 271-272, Oct. 1998.

P. Hoeher and J. Lodge, ""Turbo DPSK": Iterative differential PSK demodulation and channel decoding", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, pp. 837-843, June 1999.

A. J. Viterbi and J. K. Omura, Principles of Digital Communication and Coding, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979.

A. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. P. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40× 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified link", in Proc. OFC 2002,.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus and N. Hanik, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 17, pp. 1483-1484, Aug. 17, 2000 .

T. Miyano, M. Fukutoku, K. Hattori and H. Ono, "Suppression of degradation induced by SPM/XPM + GVD in WDM transmission using a bit-synchronous intensity modulated DPSK signal", presented at the OECC, 2000, 14D3-3.

J. Leibrich, C. Wree and W. Rosenkranz, "CF-RZ-DPSK for suppression of XPM on dispersion-managed long-haul optical WDM transmission on standard single-mode fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 155-157, Feb. 2002.

J. M. Wozencraft and I. M. Jacobs, Principles of Communication Engineering, New York: Wiley, 1965.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 3rd ed. : McGraw-Hill, 1995.

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