Abstract

This paper presents a model for the growth of grating devices in materials with a nonlinear photosensitive response to incident radiation. We derive an expression for the written refractive index modulation in the material in terms of this photosensitive response and the incident fluence profile along the device. We investigate the validity of the model experimentally using gratings written in two optical fibers with very different photosensitivity response functions. These gratings are characterized both spatially and spectrally,through direct measurements of the refractive index modulation and the analysis of the spectral filter response. The results show good agreement with the model. We extend the analysis to show how to compensate for the nonlinear material response in order to achieve a desired grating design in a given material. This compensation method is used to improve the performance of a dispersion flattened grating device to display both high bandwidth utilization and low group delay ripple over the reflection band.

© 2003 IEEE

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Other (10)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 15, pp. 1277-1294, Aug. 1997.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan and A. E. White, "Production of in-fiber gratings using a diffractive optical element", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 566-568, 1993.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov and J. Feinberg, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings with no harmonics", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 87-89, Jan. 1999.

J. A. Besley, L. Reekie, C. Weeks and J. A. Bolger, "Nonlinear photosensitivity compensation for flat dispersion Bragg grating fabrication", in Proc. ECOC 2002,.

P. A. Krug, R. Stolte and R. Ulrich, "Measurement of index modulation along an optical fiber Bragg grating", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 1767 -1769, Sept. 1995.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin and R. I. Laming, "Custom design of long chirped Bragg gratings: application to gain-flattening filter with incorporated dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 498-500, May 2000.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole and R. I. Laming, "Optimized square passband fiber Bragg grating filter with in-band flat group delay response", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 800-802, Apr. 1998.

M. Ibsen, et al. "40 Gbit/s high performance filtering for DWDM networks employing dispersion-free fiber Bragg gratings", in Proc. ECOC 2001,, ThB2.1.

L. Poladian, "Simple grating synthesis algorithm", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 787-789, June 2000.

J. Skaar, L. Wang and T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 37, pp. 165-173, Feb. 2001.

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