S. M. Schultz, E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, "Design, fabrication and performance of preferential-order volume grating waveguide couplers", Appl. Opt. , vol. 39, pp. 1223-1231, Mar. 10, 2000.
M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, "Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 71, pp. 811-818, July 1981.
M. G. Moharam, D. A. Pommet, E. B. Grann and T. K. Gaylord, "Stable implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of surface-relief gratings: enhanced transmittance matrix approach", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 12, pp. 1077-1086, May 1995 .
M. Nevière, "The homogeneous problem," in Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, R. Petit, Ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1980, ch. 5.
M. Pecht and X. Wu, "Characterization of polyimides used in high density interconnects", IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. B, vol. 17, pp. 632-639, Nov. 1994.
R. A. Kirchhoff, C. J. Carriere, K. J. Bruza, N. G. Rondan and R. L. Sammler, "Benzocyclobutenes: a new class of high performance polymers", J. Macromol. Sci. Chem. A, vol. 28, pp. 1079-1113, 1991.
H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram cases", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 48, pp. 2909-2947, Nov. 1969 .
S. Kollakowski, A. Strittmatter, E. Dröge, E. H. Böttcher, D. B. O. Reimann and K. Janiak, "65 GHz InGaAs/InAlGaAs/InP waveguide-integrated photodetectors for the 1.3-1.55 µm wavelength regime", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 74, pp. 612-614, Jan. 25, 1999.
E. H. Böttcher, H. Pfitzenmaier, E. Dröge, S. Kollakowski, A. Stittmatter, D. Bimberg and R. Steingrüber, "Distributed waveguide-integrated InGaAs MSM photodetectors for high-efficiency and ultra-wideband operation", in Proc. Conf. 11th Conf. InP and Related Material (IPRM99) , May 16-20 1999, pp. 79-82.
C. H. Buchal, A. Roelofs, M. Siegert, M. Löken, K. Nashimoto, R. Pachter, B. W. Wessels, J. Shmulovich, A. K.-Y. Jen, K. Lewis, R. Sutherland and J. W. Perry, "Polymeric strip waveguides and their connection to very thin ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal detectors", in Proc. Conf. Thin Films for Optical Waveguide Devices and Materials for Optical Limiting (Materials Research Society Symp. Proc. Vol. 597), Nov. 30-Dec. 3 1999, pp. 97- 102.
F. Gouin, L. Robitaille, C. L. Callender, J. Noad and C. Almeida, "A 4 × 4 optoelectronic switch matrix integrating an MSM array with polyimide optical waveguides", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3920, 1997, pp. 287-295.
C. L. Callender, L. Robitaille, J. P. Noad, F. Gouin and C. Almeida, "Optimization of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector arrays integrated with polyimide waveguides", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 2918, 1997, pp. 211- 221.
S.-Y. Cho, M. A. Brooke and N. M. Jokerst, "Optical interconnections for electrical boards using embedded active optoelectronic components", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, Mar./Apr. 2004. to be published.
S. M. Schultz, "High efficiency volume grating couplers", Ph.D. dissertation, Georgia Inst. of Technology, 1999.
S.-D. Wu and E. N. Glytsis, "Holographic grating formation in photopolymers: parameter determination based on a nonlocal diffusion model and the rigorous coupled-wave analysis", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 20, pp. 1177-1188, June 2003.
Y. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari and R. T. Chen, "Optoelectronic integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 355 -357, Apr. 2001.
R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects", Proc. IEEE, vol. 88, pp. 780-793, June 2000.
A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1996, ch. 24-26.
T. Tamir and A. A. Oliner, "Guided complex waves. Part 2: relation to radiation patterns", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 110, pp. 325-334, Feb. 1963.
W. Ryu, J. Lee, H. Kim, S. Ahn, N. Kim, B. Choi, D. Kam and J. Kim, "RF interconnect for multi-Gbit/s board-level clock distribution", IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 23, pp. 398-407, Aug. 2000.
D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips", Proc. IEEE, vol. 88, pp. 728-749, June 2000.
S. K. Tewksbury and L. A. Hornak, "Optical clock distribution in electronic systems", J. VLSI Signal Process. S, vol. 16, pp. 225-246, June-July 1997.
M. Rassaian and M. W. Beranek, "Quantitative characterization of 96.5Sn3.5Ag and 80Au20Sn optical fiber solder bond joints on silicon micro-optical bench substrates", IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 22, pp. 86-93, Feb. 1999.
S. J. Walker and J. Jahns, "Optical clock distribution using integrated free-space optics", Opt. Commun., vol. 90, pp. 359 -371, June 15, 1992.
R. E. Smith, S. N. Houde-Walter and G. W. Forbes, "Numerical determination of planar waveguide modes using the analyticity of the dispersion relation", Opt. Lett. , vol. 16, pp. 1316-1318, Sept. 1, 1991.
L. M. Delves and J. N. Lyness, "A numerical method for locating the zeros of an analytic function", Math. Comp., vol. 21, pp. 543 -560, 1967.
M. N. O. Sadiku, Numerical Techniques in Electromagnetics, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1992, ch. 3.
S.-D. Wu and E. N. Glytsis, "Finite-number-of-periods holographic gratings with finite-width incident beams: analysis using the finite-difference frequency-domain method", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 19, pp. 2018-2029, Oct. 2002 .
J. P. Bérenger, "Improved PML for the FDTD solution of wave-structure interaction problems", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 45, pp. 466-473, Mar. 1997.
S. T. Peng, T. Tamir and H. L. Bertoni, "Leaky-wave analysis of optical periodic couplers", Electron. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 150-152, Mar. 22, 1973.
S. T. Peng, T. Tamir and H. L. Bertoni, "Theory of periodic dielectric waveguides", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-23, pp. 123-133, Jan. 1975.
W. Driemeier, "Coupled-wave analysis of the Bragg effect waveguide coupler", J. Mod. Opt., vol. 38, pp. 363 -377, Feb. 1991.