Abstract

This paper presents our latest studies on high-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using the optical spectrum analysis method. Several new characterization techniques are theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated for the measurement of critical device parameters at very high modulation frequencies. Applying this method in our wide-band electrooptic (EO) modulator characterization experiment, we have successfully measured halfwave voltages, frequency responses, and the chirp parameter at frequencies over 10 GHz for several typical high-speed LiNbO3 modulators. Our experiment showed that the optical spectrum analysis provides an accurate and convenient platform for ultra-high-speed EO modulator characterization.

© 2003 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien and D. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communication systems", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 69-82, 2000 .
  2. F. Heismann, S. Korotky and J. Veselka, "Lithium niobate integrated optics: selected contemporary devices and system applications," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications III B, I. Kaminow, and T. Koch, Eds. New York: Academic, 1997, pp. 377-462.
  3. S. Kim, O. Mizuhara, Y. Park, L. Tzeng, Y. Kim and J. Jeong, "Theoretical and experimental study of 10 Gb/s transmission performance using 1.55µm LiNbO3 -based transmitters with adjustable extinction ratio", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1320-1325, 1999.
  4. P. Cross, R. Baumgarner and B. Kolner, "Microwave integrated optical modulator", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 44, pp. 486-488, 1984.
  5. R. Becker, "Traveling-wave electro-optic modulator with maximum bandwidth-length product", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 45, pp. 1168-1170, 1984.
  6. R. Tench, J. Delavaux, L. Tzeng and R. Smith, "Performance evaluation of waveguide phase modulators for coherent systems at 1.3 and 1.55 µm", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-5, pp. 495-501, 1987.
  7. K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa and H. Jumonji, "A wide-band and low-driving-power modulator employing a Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide at 1.5µm wavelength", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 33-34, 1989.
  8. G. Gopalakrishnan, W. Burns, R. McElhanon, C. Bulmer and A. Greenblatt, "Performance and modeling of broadband LiNbO 3 traveling wave optical intensity modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1807-1819, 1994.
  9. F. Auracher and R. Keil, "Method for measuring rf modulation characteristics of Mach-Zehnder type modulators", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 36, pp. 626-628, 1980.
  10. M. Izutsu, Y. Yamane and T. Sueta, "Broad-band traveling-wave modulator using a LiNbO3 optical-waveguide", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. , vol. QE-13, pp. 287-290, 1977.
  11. K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Mizayawa and S. Seki, "A broadband Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator with a ridge structure", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1164-1168, 1995.
  12. O. Mitomi, K. Noguchi and H. Miyazawa, "Estimation of frequency response for high-speed LiNbO3 optical modulators", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron. , vol. 146, pp. 99-104, 1999.
  13. C. Harder, K. Vahala and A. Yariv, "Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor a of semiconductor lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 42, pp. 328-330, 1983.
  14. M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, Y. Kushiro and S. Akiba, "Dynamic spectral width of an InGaAs/InP electroabsorption modulator under high-frequency large-signal modulation", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 312-314, 1986.
  15. O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita and M. Naganuma, "Chirping characteristic and frequency response of MQW optical intensity modulator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 71-76, 1992.
  16. T. Wood, L. Ostar and M. Suzuki, "The effect of modulator nonlinearity on measurements of chirp in electroabsorption modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1152-1157, 1994.
  17. T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa and M. Izutsu, "Direct measurement of chirp parameters of high-speed Mach-Zehnder-type optical modulators", Opt. Commun. , vol. 195, pp. 399-404, 2001.
  18. K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi and H. Mizayawa, "Millimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 615-619, 1998.
  19. F. Koyama and K. Iga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 87-93, 1988.
  20. A. Djupsjobacka, "Residual chirp in integrated-optic modulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 41 -43, 1992.
  21. F. Olver, "Bessel functions of integer order," in Handbook of Mathematical Functions, M. Abramowitz, and I. Stegun, Eds. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Standards, 1964, p. 370.
  22. S. Uehara, "Calibration of optical frequency response with application to signal level control", Appl. Opt., vol. 17, pp. 68-71, 1978 .
  23. "High-speed lightwave components analysis", Agilent Technologies, Inc., Application Note 1550-6, June 2001.
  24. P. Hale and D. Williams, "Calibrated measurement of optoelectronic frequency response", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 51, pp. 1422-1429, 2003.
  25. J. Juroshek, "A direct calibration method for measuring equivalent source mismatch", Microwave J., pp. 106-118, 1997.

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita and M. Naganuma, "Chirping characteristic and frequency response of MQW optical intensity modulator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 71-76, 1992.

T. Wood, L. Ostar and M. Suzuki, "The effect of modulator nonlinearity on measurements of chirp in electroabsorption modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1152-1157, 1994.

S. Kim, O. Mizuhara, Y. Park, L. Tzeng, Y. Kim and J. Jeong, "Theoretical and experimental study of 10 Gb/s transmission performance using 1.55µm LiNbO3 -based transmitters with adjustable extinction ratio", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1320-1325, 1999.

G. Gopalakrishnan, W. Burns, R. McElhanon, C. Bulmer and A. Greenblatt, "Performance and modeling of broadband LiNbO 3 traveling wave optical intensity modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1807-1819, 1994.

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Mizayawa and S. Seki, "A broadband Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator with a ridge structure", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1164-1168, 1995.

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi and H. Mizayawa, "Millimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 615-619, 1998.

F. Koyama and K. Iga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 87-93, 1988.

Other

A. Djupsjobacka, "Residual chirp in integrated-optic modulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 41 -43, 1992.

F. Olver, "Bessel functions of integer order," in Handbook of Mathematical Functions, M. Abramowitz, and I. Stegun, Eds. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Standards, 1964, p. 370.

O. Mitomi, K. Noguchi and H. Miyazawa, "Estimation of frequency response for high-speed LiNbO3 optical modulators", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron. , vol. 146, pp. 99-104, 1999.

C. Harder, K. Vahala and A. Yariv, "Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor a of semiconductor lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 42, pp. 328-330, 1983.

M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, Y. Kushiro and S. Akiba, "Dynamic spectral width of an InGaAs/InP electroabsorption modulator under high-frequency large-signal modulation", Electron. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 312-314, 1986.

F. Auracher and R. Keil, "Method for measuring rf modulation characteristics of Mach-Zehnder type modulators", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 36, pp. 626-628, 1980.

M. Izutsu, Y. Yamane and T. Sueta, "Broad-band traveling-wave modulator using a LiNbO3 optical-waveguide", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. , vol. QE-13, pp. 287-290, 1977.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien and D. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communication systems", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 69-82, 2000 .

F. Heismann, S. Korotky and J. Veselka, "Lithium niobate integrated optics: selected contemporary devices and system applications," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications III B, I. Kaminow, and T. Koch, Eds. New York: Academic, 1997, pp. 377-462.

P. Cross, R. Baumgarner and B. Kolner, "Microwave integrated optical modulator", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 44, pp. 486-488, 1984.

R. Becker, "Traveling-wave electro-optic modulator with maximum bandwidth-length product", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 45, pp. 1168-1170, 1984.

R. Tench, J. Delavaux, L. Tzeng and R. Smith, "Performance evaluation of waveguide phase modulators for coherent systems at 1.3 and 1.55 µm", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-5, pp. 495-501, 1987.

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa and H. Jumonji, "A wide-band and low-driving-power modulator employing a Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide at 1.5µm wavelength", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 33-34, 1989.

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa and M. Izutsu, "Direct measurement of chirp parameters of high-speed Mach-Zehnder-type optical modulators", Opt. Commun. , vol. 195, pp. 399-404, 2001.

"High-speed lightwave components analysis", Agilent Technologies, Inc., Application Note 1550-6, June 2001.

P. Hale and D. Williams, "Calibrated measurement of optoelectronic frequency response", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 51, pp. 1422-1429, 2003.

J. Juroshek, "A direct calibration method for measuring equivalent source mismatch", Microwave J., pp. 106-118, 1997.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.