Abstract

Planar optical waveguides consisting of layers from different materials created at elevated temperatures usually exhibit substantial stresses. These stresses are caused by thermal-induced strains that originate from the bonding of the layers in addition to intrinsic strains. For the first time,the analytical form of thermal stress formula is derived for the waveguide glass layer of the silicon-based silica waveguide in bilayer structures by the thin-film approximation and under the strain compatibility and the force equilibrium conditions. These conditions address the composite nature of the waveguide glass layer containing the waveguide core layer and the cladding layers within the optical planar waveguide. The developed formula reveals that temperature parameter, material parameters, and structural parameters affect the distribution of the thermal stress. By applying the formula, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve the thermal stress-free, and, hence,the stress-induced birefringence-free waveguide devices by proper waveguide designs.

© 2003 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Kilian, J. Kirchhof, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel and W. Wischmann, "Birefringence free planar waveguide made by FDH through tailoring of the overcladding", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 193-198, Feb. 2000.

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 625-633, Apr. 1994.

Other (17)

J. Canning and M. Aslund, "Birefringence compensation improved fringe contrast and trimming in an integrated asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer using mid-IR laser processing", Opt. Mater., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 175-183, May 2000.

J. Canning, M. Aslund, A. Ankiewicz, M. Dainese, H. Fernando, J. K. Sahu and L. Wosinski, "Birefringence control in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition planar waveguides by ultraviolet irradiation", Appl. Opt., vol. 39, no. 24, pp. 4296-4299, Aug. 2000.

S. Suzuki, Y. Inoue and Y. Ohmori, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with SiO2 -on-SiO 2 structure", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 642-643, Apr. 1994.

S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, Y. Inoue, M. Ishii and Y. Ohmori, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating using dopant-rich silica-based glass with thermal expansion adjusted to Si substrate", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 13, pp. 1173-1174, June. 1997.

S. M. Ojha, C. Cureton, T. Bricheno, S. Day, D. Moule, A. J. Bell and J. Taylor, "Simple method of fabrication polarization-insensitive and very low crosstalk AWG grating devices", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 78-79, Jan. 1994.

J. Canning, "Birefringence control in planar waveguides using doped top layers", Opt. Comm., vol. 191, pp. 225-228, May 2001 .

C. Nadler, M. Lanker, E. Wildermuth, W. Hunziker and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive wavelength multiplexers using stress release grooves", in Proc. ECOC'98, 1998, pp. 129-130.

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 5, pp. 1407-1412, Sept.-Oct. 1999.

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibina, Y. Ohmmori and M. Kawachi, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensation film", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 707-708, June 1993.

D. Xiaoqing, Y. Qinqing, W. Hongjie, H. Xiongwei and W. Qiming, "Stress analysis of silica optical waveguide on silicon by a finite element method", Chin. J. Semicond., vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1196-1200, Nov. 2002.

X. Zhao, Y. Z. Xu and C. Li, "Thermal strain analysis in optical planar waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 398 -400, Mar. 2003.

X. Zhao, C. Li and Y. Z. Xu, "Stress-induced birefringence control in optical planar waveguides", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 564-566, Apr. 2003.

P. Townsend, D. Barnett and T. Brunner, "Elastic relationships in layered composite media with approximation for the case of thin films on a thick substrate", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 62, pp. 4438-4444, Dec. 1987.

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970, pp. 15-456.

C. A. Klein and R. P. Miller, "Strains and stresses in multilayered elastic structures: the case of chemically vapor-deposited ZnS'ZnSe laminates", J. Appl. Mech., vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 2265-2272, Mar. 2000.

W. D. Nix, "Mechanical properties of thin films", Metall. Trans., vol. 20A, pp. 2217-2245, Nov. 1989.

C.-H. Hsueh, "Modeling of elastic deformation of multilayers due to residual stresses and external bending", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 4438-4444, June 2002.

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