Abstract

In this paper, we propose and analyze an electrically modulated silicon-on-insulator (SOI) submicrometer-size high-index-contrast waveguide. The geometry of the waveguide provides high lateral optical confinement and defines a lateral p-i-n diode. The electrooptic structure is electrically and optically modeled. The effect of the waveguide geometry on the device performance is studied. Our calculations indicate that this scheme can be used to implement submicrometer high-index-contrast waveguide active devices on SOI. As an example of application, a one-dimensional microcavity intensity modulator is predicted to exhibit a modulation depth as high as 80% by employing a dc power consumption as low as 14 µW .

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. L. C. Kimerling, "Photons to the rescue: microelectronics becomes microphotonics", Electrochem. Soc. Interface, p. 28, Summer 2000.
  2. K. K. Lee, "Transmission and routing of optical signals in on-chip waveguides for silicon microphotonics", Ph.D dissertation, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, 2001.
  3. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim and L. C. Kimerling, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO 2 waveguides by roughness reduction", Opt. Lett. , vol. 26, no. 23, p. 1888, 2001.
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  6. J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides", Nature, vol. 390, p. 143, 1997.
  7. C. Angulo Barrios, V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Low-power-consumption short-length and high-modulation-depth silicon electro-optic modulator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1089-1098, 2003.
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  13. P. D. Hewitt and G. T. Reed, "Improved modulation performance of a silicon p-i-n device by trench isolation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 3, p. 387, 2001.
  14. P. D. Hewitt and G. T. Reed, "Improving the response of optical phase modulators in SOI by computer simulation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 3, p. 443, 2000.
  15. A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 3, p. 505, 1997.
  16. D. R. Lim, "Device integration for silicon microphotonic platforms", Ph.D dissertation, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, 2000.
  17. O. Nakatsuka, T. Ashizawa, H. Iwano, S. Zaima and Y. Yasuda, "Contact resistivities and electrical characteristics of Co/Si contact by rapid thermal annealing", in Proc. Adv. Metallization Conf. (AMC 1998) , vol. 784, Warrendale, PA, 1999, pp. 605-610.
  18. A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, A. Irace, P. Spirito and L. Zeni, "An electrically controlled Bragg reflector integrated in a rib silicon on insulator waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, no. 2, p. 199, 1997 .
  19. J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989, p. 137.
  20. A. Irace, G. Coppola, G. Breglio and A. Cutolo, "Fast silicon-on-silicon optoelectronic router based on a BMFET device", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 14-18, 2000.
  21. G. Coppola, A. Irace, M. Iodice and A. Cutolo, "Simulation and analysis of a high-efficiency silicon optoelectronic modulator based on a Bragg mirror", Opt. Eng. , vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1076-1081, 2001.

Other

L. C. Kimerling, "Photons to the rescue: microelectronics becomes microphotonics", Electrochem. Soc. Interface, p. 28, Summer 2000.

K. K. Lee, "Transmission and routing of optical signals in on-chip waveguides for silicon microphotonics", Ph.D dissertation, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, 2001.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim and L. C. Kimerling, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO 2 waveguides by roughness reduction", Opt. Lett. , vol. 26, no. 23, p. 1888, 2001.

V. A. Almeida, R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 1302-1304, 2003.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ipren, L. C. Kimerling and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters", IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 549-551, 1998.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides", Nature, vol. 390, p. 143, 1997.

C. Angulo Barrios, V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Low-power-consumption short-length and high-modulation-depth silicon electro-optic modulator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1089-1098, 2003.

C. Z. Zhao, A. H. Chen, E. K. Liu and G. Z. Li, "Silicon-on-insulator asymmetric optical switch based on total internal reflection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 8, p. 1113, 1997.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, "Thermo-optical modulator at 1.5 µm in silicon etalon", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 1, p. 83, 1992.

C. Cocorullo, M. Iodice, I. Rendina and P. M. Sarro, "Silicon thermo-optical micro-modulator with 700 kHz -3 dB bandwidth", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 363-365, 1995.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-23, no. 1, p. 123, 1987.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon", SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng., vol. 704, 1986.

P. D. Hewitt and G. T. Reed, "Improved modulation performance of a silicon p-i-n device by trench isolation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 3, p. 387, 2001.

P. D. Hewitt and G. T. Reed, "Improving the response of optical phase modulators in SOI by computer simulation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 3, p. 443, 2000.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 3, p. 505, 1997.

D. R. Lim, "Device integration for silicon microphotonic platforms", Ph.D dissertation, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, 2000.

O. Nakatsuka, T. Ashizawa, H. Iwano, S. Zaima and Y. Yasuda, "Contact resistivities and electrical characteristics of Co/Si contact by rapid thermal annealing", in Proc. Adv. Metallization Conf. (AMC 1998) , vol. 784, Warrendale, PA, 1999, pp. 605-610.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, A. Irace, P. Spirito and L. Zeni, "An electrically controlled Bragg reflector integrated in a rib silicon on insulator waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, no. 2, p. 199, 1997 .

J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989, p. 137.

A. Irace, G. Coppola, G. Breglio and A. Cutolo, "Fast silicon-on-silicon optoelectronic router based on a BMFET device", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 14-18, 2000.

G. Coppola, A. Irace, M. Iodice and A. Cutolo, "Simulation and analysis of a high-efficiency silicon optoelectronic modulator based on a Bragg mirror", Opt. Eng. , vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1076-1081, 2001.

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