Abstract

The imbalance and excess loss in multimode interference couplers with fabrication errors are examined. Remarkably, there exists a number of optimum access waveguide widths which give a minimum imbalance. Furthermore,quite low excess loss can be simultaneously achieved by choosing one particular optimum width. It is also shown that paired interference couplers have better imbalance performance than general interference couplers, given the same fabrication tolerances and length constraint for both coupler types. In particular, a paired interference coupler with an access waveguide width approximately 0.3 times the coupler width has the best imbalance performance. These results are obtained using a simple model and are supported by more sophisticated numerical models and experimental data from couplers fabricated in InP/InGaAsP.

© 2003 IEEE

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  5. X. J. M. Leijtens, P. Le Lourec and M. K. Smit, "S-matrix oriented CAD-tool for simulating complex integrated optical circuits", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 2, pp. 257-262, June 1996.
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  7. L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman and M. K. Smit, "Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 1008-1010, Aug. 1994.
  8. D. Erasme, L. H. Spiekman, C. G. P. Herben, M. K. Smit and F. H. Groen, "Experimental assessment of the reflection of passive multimode interference couplers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1604-1606, Dec. 1997.
  9. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 30, pp. 6898-6908, Oct. 1995.

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 615-627, Apr. 1995.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano and M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1004-1009, June 1994.

Other (7)

D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena and X. J. M. Leijtens, "Polarization independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 284-286, Mar. 2000.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers", Appl. Opt., vol. 33, no. 18, pp. 3905-3911, June 1994.

X. J. M. Leijtens, P. Le Lourec and M. K. Smit, "S-matrix oriented CAD-tool for simulating complex integrated optical circuits", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 2, pp. 257-262, June 1996.

T. Tamir, Ed. Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988, ch. 2, pp. 69-74.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman and M. K. Smit, "Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 1008-1010, Aug. 1994.

D. Erasme, L. H. Spiekman, C. G. P. Herben, M. K. Smit and F. H. Groen, "Experimental assessment of the reflection of passive multimode interference couplers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1604-1606, Dec. 1997.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 30, pp. 6898-6908, Oct. 1995.

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