Abstract

Single-crystal sapphire fibers have a very high melting point (up to 2050°C), which renders them a very good candidate for the sensing applications at a very high temperature. We present in this paper the recent work of developing single-crystal sapphire fiber extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensors based on the whitelight interferometric spectrum demodulation technique. Prototype sapphire strain sensors were fabricated and tested at high temperatures up to 1004°C . The preliminary experimental results indicate that the sensors are promising to be used under high-temperature environments for making strain measurements with the strain measurement resolution of 0.2-µ strain.

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Optical Fiber Sensors, Reading, MA: Artech House, 1989,vol. 2.
  2. T. Li, Optical Fiber Communications: Fiber Fabrication, T. Li, Ed. New York: Academic, 1985.
  3. A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, K. A. Murphy, R. G. May and R. O. Claus, "Sapphire-fiber-based intrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometer", Opt. Lett., vol. 17, no. 14, pp. 1021 -1203, July 1992.
  4. G. N. Merberg and J. A. Harrington, "Optical and mechanical properties of signle-crystal sapphire optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 32, no. 18, pp. 3201-3209, June 1993.
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  6. J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, Infrared Fiber Optics, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, Eds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998, ch. 6, pp. 190-194.
  7. R. K. Nubling and J. A. Harrington, "Optical properties of single-crystal sapphire fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 24, pp. 5934 -5940, 1997.
  8. R. R. Dils, "High-temperature optical fiber thermometer", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1198-1201, March 1983.
  9. K. A. Murphy, G. Z. Wang, B. R. Fogg, A. M. Wengsarkar and R. O. Claus, "Sapphire fiber interferometer for microdisplacement measurements at high temperatures", in Proc. SPIE 1588 Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins IV, 1991, pp. 117 -124.
  10. A. Wang, P. Zhang, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy and R. O. Claus, "Sapphire fiber-based polarimetric optical sensor for high-temperature applications", in Proc. SPIE Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Sensing, Processing and Instrumentation, vol. 2191, pp. 13-22.
  11. A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy and R. O. Claus, "Sapphire optical fiber-based interferometer for high temperature environmental applications", Smart Mater. Structures , pp. 147-151,
  12. R. O. Claus, et al. "Extrinsic Fabry-Pérot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurements for - 200 to 900 °C", Smart Mater. Structures, pp. 237-242, 1992.
  13. T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh and T. Ose, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer and its sensor applications", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, pp. 1624-1632, 1982.
  14. L. C. Gunderson, "Fiber optic sensor applications using Fabry-Pérot interferometry", in Proc. SPIE Fiber Optic Sensors IV, vol. 1267, 1990, pp. 194-204.
  15. Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, "Prototype fiber-optic-based ultrahigh pressure remote sensor with built-in temperature compensation", Rev. Sci. Instrum. , vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 1695-1698, May 1994.
  16. M. Matsumoto, K. Fujimura, K. Hattori and H. Naono, "Fiber optic acoustic sensor based on Febry-Pérot interferometer", in Tech. Dig. OFS 4th Int. Conf. Fiber Optic Sensors, Tokyo, Japan, 1986, pp. 43 -46.
  17. J. X. Fang, H. F. Taylor and H. S. Choi, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot flow sensor", Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 209-211, June 1998.
  18. H. Xiao, W. Huo, J. Deng, M. Luo, Z. Wang, R. May and A. Wang, "Fiber optic whitelight interferometric spectrum signal processing for absolute measurement," in Harsh Environment Sensors II, A. Wang, Ed. 1999, vol. 3852, pp. 74-80.
  19. Y. Shen, L. Tong and S. Chen, "Performance stability of the sapphire fiber and cladding under high temperature", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3852, p. 134.

Other (19)

B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Optical Fiber Sensors, Reading, MA: Artech House, 1989,vol. 2.

T. Li, Optical Fiber Communications: Fiber Fabrication, T. Li, Ed. New York: Academic, 1985.

A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, K. A. Murphy, R. G. May and R. O. Claus, "Sapphire-fiber-based intrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometer", Opt. Lett., vol. 17, no. 14, pp. 1021 -1203, July 1992.

G. N. Merberg and J. A. Harrington, "Optical and mechanical properties of signle-crystal sapphire optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 32, no. 18, pp. 3201-3209, June 1993.

M. A. Saifi, B. Dubois and E. M. Vogel, "Laser heated growth and zone refining of single-crystal fibers", in Int. Ceramics Conf., Milan, Italy, 1985.

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, Infrared Fiber Optics, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, Eds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998, ch. 6, pp. 190-194.

R. K. Nubling and J. A. Harrington, "Optical properties of single-crystal sapphire fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 24, pp. 5934 -5940, 1997.

R. R. Dils, "High-temperature optical fiber thermometer", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1198-1201, March 1983.

K. A. Murphy, G. Z. Wang, B. R. Fogg, A. M. Wengsarkar and R. O. Claus, "Sapphire fiber interferometer for microdisplacement measurements at high temperatures", in Proc. SPIE 1588 Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins IV, 1991, pp. 117 -124.

A. Wang, P. Zhang, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy and R. O. Claus, "Sapphire fiber-based polarimetric optical sensor for high-temperature applications", in Proc. SPIE Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Sensing, Processing and Instrumentation, vol. 2191, pp. 13-22.

A. Wang, S. Gollapudi, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy and R. O. Claus, "Sapphire optical fiber-based interferometer for high temperature environmental applications", Smart Mater. Structures , pp. 147-151,

R. O. Claus, et al. "Extrinsic Fabry-Pérot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurements for - 200 to 900 °C", Smart Mater. Structures, pp. 237-242, 1992.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh and T. Ose, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer and its sensor applications", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, pp. 1624-1632, 1982.

L. C. Gunderson, "Fiber optic sensor applications using Fabry-Pérot interferometry", in Proc. SPIE Fiber Optic Sensors IV, vol. 1267, 1990, pp. 194-204.

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, "Prototype fiber-optic-based ultrahigh pressure remote sensor with built-in temperature compensation", Rev. Sci. Instrum. , vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 1695-1698, May 1994.

M. Matsumoto, K. Fujimura, K. Hattori and H. Naono, "Fiber optic acoustic sensor based on Febry-Pérot interferometer", in Tech. Dig. OFS 4th Int. Conf. Fiber Optic Sensors, Tokyo, Japan, 1986, pp. 43 -46.

J. X. Fang, H. F. Taylor and H. S. Choi, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot flow sensor", Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 209-211, June 1998.

H. Xiao, W. Huo, J. Deng, M. Luo, Z. Wang, R. May and A. Wang, "Fiber optic whitelight interferometric spectrum signal processing for absolute measurement," in Harsh Environment Sensors II, A. Wang, Ed. 1999, vol. 3852, pp. 74-80.

Y. Shen, L. Tong and S. Chen, "Performance stability of the sapphire fiber and cladding under high temperature", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3852, p. 134.

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