Abstract

Photochromic liquid-core fibers were fabricated by using benzene or 2-propanol solution of spirobenzopyran. The fiber element consisting of a benzene-solution core and a silica-glass cladding exhibited variable transmittance that was controlled by ultraviolet irradiation. When a visible laser beam (532-nm wavelength) was used as input signal, output signal power increased nonlinearly with input power due to reversed photochromism. This nonlinear input-output characteristic was observed without ultraviolet light,when a fiber was constructed with 2-propanol solution and a polymer-coated glass tube. These experimental results agreed with the theoretical prediction that was based on a simple photochromic fiber model.

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Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (29)

J. Stone, "Optical transmission loss in liquid-core hollow fibers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. , vol. QE-8, pp. 386-388, 1972.

D. N. Payne and W. A. Gambling, "New low-loss liquid-core fiber waveguide", Electron. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 374-376, 1972.

G. Rosman, "Variation of pulse delay with launch angle in a liquid-filled fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 455-456, 1972.

G. D. Ogilvie, R. J. Esdaile and G. P. Kidd, "Transmission loss of tetrachloroethylene-filled liquid-core-fiber light guide", Electron. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 533-534, 1972.

A. K. Majumdar, E. D. Hinkley and R. T. Menzies, "Infrared transmission at the 3.39 µ m Helium-Neon laser wavelength in liquid-core quartz fibers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-15, pp. 408-410, 1979.

K. Fuwa, W. Lei and K. Fujiwara, "Colorimetry with a total-reflection long capillary cell", Anal. Chem., vol. 56, pp. 1640 -1644, 1984.

H. Dürr, "Perspectives in photochromism: A novel system based on the 1, 5-electrocyclization of heteroanalogous pentadienyl anions", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., vol. 28, pp. 413-431, 1989.

D. Levy, "Photochromic sol-gel materials", Chem. Mater., vol. 9, pp. 2666-2670, 1997.

M. Kryszewski, B. Nadolski, A. M. North and R. A. Pethrick, "Kinetic matrix effects (response and density distribution functions): Ring closure", J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2, vol. 76, pp. 351-368, 1980.

K. Horie, M. Tsukamoto and I. Mita, "Photochromic reaction of spiropyran in polycarbonate film", Eur. Polymer J., vol. 21, pp. 805-810, 1985.

J. G. Victor and J. M. Torkelson, "On measuring the distribution of local free volume in glassy polymers by photochromic and fluorescence techniques", Macromolecules, vol. 20, pp. 2241-2250, 1987.

D. Levy and D. Avnir, "Effects of the changes in the properties of the silica cage along the gel/xerogel transition on the photochromic behavior of trapped spiropyrans", J. Phys. Chem., vol. 92, pp. 4734-4738, 1988.

D. Preston, J.-C. Pouxviel, T. Novinson, W. Kaska, B. Dunn and J. I. Zink, "Photochromism of spiropyrans in aluminosilicate gels", J. Phys. Chem., vol. 94, pp. 4167-4172, 1990.

A. Tork, F. Boudreault, M. Roberge, A. M. Ritcey, R. A. Lessard and T. V. Galstian, "Photochromic behavior of spiropyran in polymer matrices", Appl. Opt., vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1180-1186, 2001.

R. Cush, C. Trundle, C. J. G. Kirkby and I. Bennion, "Bistable optical switching and logic elements in photochromic fulgides with single-wavelength illumination", Electron. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 419-421, 1987.

J. R. Kulisch, H. Franke, R. Irmscher and Ch. Buchal, "Opto-optical switching in ion-implanted poly(methyl methacrylate)-waveguides", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 71, pp. 3123-3126, 1992.

N. Tanio and M. Irie, "Photooptical switching of polymer film waveguide containing photochromic diarylethenes", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 1550-1553, 1994.

K. Sasaki and T. Nagamura, "Ultrafast wide range all-optical switch using complex refractive-index changes in a composite film of silver and polymer containing photochromic dye", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 83, pp. 2894-2900, 1998.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J.-M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois and Y. Lévy, "Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials", Chem. Mater., vol. 10, pp. 1945-1950, 1998.

S. Lecomte, U. Gubler, M. Jäger, Ch. Bosshard, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, L. Gobbi and F. Diederich, "Reversible optical structuring of polymer waveguides doped with photochromic molecules", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 77, pp. 921-923, 2000.

E. Ando, J. Hibino, T. Hashida and K. Morimoto, "Controls of photochromic reactions in spiropyran Langmuir-Blodgett films", Thin Solid Films, vol. 160, pp. 279-286, 1988.

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-dimensional optical storage memory", Science, vol. 245, pp. 843-845, 1989.

D. Levy and F. D. Monte, "Photochromic doped sol-gel materials for fiber-optic devices", J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol., vol. 8, pp. 931-935, 1997.

R. Nakao, N. Ueda, Y. Abe, T. Horii and H. Inoue, "Polymeric siloxanes with a substituent and the spirobenzopyran moiety: Effect of polar substituent on the photochromic properties", Polym. Adv. Technol., vol. 7, pp. 863-866, 1996.

D. Levy, S. Einhorn and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: Sysnthesis, properties, mechanisms", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 113, pp. 137-145, 1989.

G. H. Brown, Ed. Photochromism, New York: Wiley, 1971, ch. III.

R. D. Waterbury, W. Yao and R. H. Byrne, "Long pathlength absorbance spectroscopy: Trace analysis of Fe(II) using a 4.5 m liquid core waveguide", Anal. Chim. Acta, vol. 357, pp. 99-102, 1997.

M. Saito, T. Gojo, Y. Kato and M. Miyagi, "Optical constants of polymer coatings in the infrared", Infrared Phys. Technol., vol. 36, pp. 1125-1129, 1995.

M. Irie, "Photochromic diarylethenes for photonic devices", Pure Appl. Chem., vol. 68, pp. 1367-1371, 1996.

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