Abstract

An improved analytical expression of the multiple path interference (MPI) induced by double Rayleigh scattered signal in fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs), valid both for lumped and distributed FRAs, is derived with a small signal model. The expression is validated both by comparison with an exact solution and by MPI measurements on four different lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers.

© 2003 IEEE

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  1. P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 159-161, 1998.
  2. H. Aoki, "Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communications systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 1225-1239, 1988.
  3. C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 536-545, 2001.
  4. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 528-530, 2000.
  5. S. Gray, M. Vasilyev and K. Jepsen, "Spectral broadening of double Rayleigh backscattering in a distributed Raman amplifier", in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit (OFC 2001), vol. 1, 2001.
  6. K. P. Ho, E. T. P. Kong, L. Yin Chan, L. K. Chen and F. Tong, "Analysis and measurement of root-mean-squared bandwidth of cross-phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1126-1128, 1999.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

H. Aoki, "Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communications systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 1225-1239, 1988.

Other (5)

C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 536-545, 2001.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 528-530, 2000.

S. Gray, M. Vasilyev and K. Jepsen, "Spectral broadening of double Rayleigh backscattering in a distributed Raman amplifier", in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit (OFC 2001), vol. 1, 2001.

K. P. Ho, E. T. P. Kong, L. Yin Chan, L. K. Chen and F. Tong, "Analysis and measurement of root-mean-squared bandwidth of cross-phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1126-1128, 1999.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 159-161, 1998.

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