Abstract

A general theoretical model of statistical Raman crosstalk and its impact on system performance in a multiwavelength bidirectionally pumped Raman fiber amplifier (RFA) is developed for the first time, where we have taken modulation statistics, dispersion-induced pulse walk-off and signal-induced pump depletion into account. Two kinds of statistical Raman crosstalk, from signal-induced forward-pump depletion and from signal-signal Raman interaction,are included in one model. Formulas for normalized Raman crosstalk, Raman crosstalk-induced relative intensity noise spectral density, and its variance and system performance impact in terms of Q penalty are presented for both a single-span system and a dispersion-compensated multispan wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) link. Based on these formulas,we numerically investigate the impact of Raman crosstalk on system performance in a three-wavelengths bidirectionally pumped 40 × 40-Gb/s WDM system for various fiber types. In addition, Raman crosstalk in a four-wavelength bidirectionally pumped RFA was experimentally measured. The results agree well with our theory.

© 2003 IEEE

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  4. S. Kado, Y. Emori and S. Namiki, "Gain and noise tilt control in multiple-wavelength bi-directionally pumped Raman amplifier", presented at the OFC 2002, Anaheim, CA, Paper TuJ4, Mar. 2002.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

W. Jiang and P. Ye, "Crosstalk in fiber Raman amplification for WDM system", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 1407-1411, Sept. 1989 .

Z.. Jiang and C.. Fan, "A comprehensive study on XPM-and SRS-induced noise in cascaded IM-DD optical fiber transmission systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 1-8, Jan. 2003.

K.-P. Ho, "Statistical properties of stimulated Raman crosstalk in WDM system", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 915-921, July 2000.

Other (13)

M. R. Philips and D. M. Ott, "WDM lightwave system crosstalk by optical kerr effects with polarization-dependent loss", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1764-1765, Sept. 1999.

C.. Fludger, A. Maroney and N. Jolley, "An analysis of the improvements in OSNR from distributed Raman amplifiers using modern transmission fibers", presented at the OFC 2000 , Baltimore, MD, Paper FF2-1, Mar. 2000.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen and X. Li, "Pump depletion induced noise and crosstalk in distributed fiber Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 651-653, July 2001.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyly, "Bandwidth of crosstalk in Raman amplifier", in OFC'94 Tech. Dig., 1994.

J. S. Wey, D. L. Burtler, M. F. Van Leeuwen, L. G. Joneckis and J. Goldhar, "Crosstalk bandwidth in backward pumped fiber Raman amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1417-1419, Nov. 1999.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach and A.R. Chraplyvy, "Effect of modulation statistics on Raman crosstalk in WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 101-103, Jan. 1995.

D. N. Christodoulides and R. B. Jander, "Evolution of stimulated Raman crosstalk in wavelength division multiplexed systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1722-1724, Dec. 1996.

A. Berntson, E. Goobar, S. Popov, L. Helczynski, G. Jacobsen and J. Karlsson, "Influence of crosstalk and pump depletion on the design of Raman amplifiers for WDM systems", in Proc. ECOC 2000, vol. 3, Munich, Germany, Sept. 2000, pp. 149-150.

M. N. Islam, "Raman amplifiers for Telecommunications", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, pp. 548-559, May-June 2002.

Y. Chen, A. Singh, L. Lumish, M. Achtenhagen, R. Singh and D. Innis, "Bi-directionally pumped broadband Raman amplifier", in Proc. ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Sept. 2001, pp. 230-231.

S. Kado, Y. Emori, S. Namiki, N. Tsukiji and J. Y. Kimura, "Broadband flat-noise Raman amplifier using low-noise bi-directionally pumping sources", presented at the ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Postdeadline Paper Th.F.4, 2001.

S. Kado, Y. Emori and S. Namiki, "Gain and noise tilt control in multiple-wavelength bi-directionally pumped Raman amplifier", presented at the OFC 2002, Anaheim, CA, Paper TuJ4, Mar. 2002.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf and M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 997-998, June 1999.

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