Photosensitivity studies of germanosilica planar waveguides were carried out with short-wavelength 157-nm light from an F2 laser. More than a 5 × 10-3 refractive-index change was induced in a nonuniform index profile concentrated near the cladding-core interface and confirmed by an atomic force microscopy in 157-nm radiated fiber. This profile geometry narrows with the laser exposure to offer practical application in trimming phase errors and controlling birefringence in frequency domain modulators where a 1.7 × 10-3 effective index change and a 5 × 10-4 birefringence change were induced, respectively. The 157-nm photosensitivity response is more than 15 times stronger than that by a 248-nm KrF laser and more than twofold stronger than that by a 193-nm ArF laser.


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