Photosensitivity studies of germanosilica planar waveguides were carried out with short-wavelength 157-nm light from an F2 laser. More than a 5 × 10-3 refractive-index change was induced in a nonuniform index profile concentrated near the cladding-core interface and confirmed by an atomic force microscopy in 157-nm radiated fiber. This profile geometry narrows with the laser exposure to offer practical application in trimming phase errors and controlling birefringence in frequency domain modulators where a 1.7 × 10-3 effective index change and a 5 × 10-4 birefringence change were induced, respectively. The 157-nm photosensitivity response is more than 15 times stronger than that by a 248-nm KrF laser and more than twofold stronger than that by a 193-nm ArF laser.


PDF Article


  • View by:
  • |

  1. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method", Opt. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 823-825, 1989.
  2. J. Canning, M. Åslund, A. Ankiewicz, M. Dainese, H. Fernando, J. K. Sahu and L. Wosinski, "Birefringence control in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition planar waveguides by ultraviolet irradiation", Appl. Opt., vol. 39, pp. 4296 -4299, 2000.
  3. M. Åslund, J. Canning and G. Yoffe, "Locking in photosensitivity within optical fiber and planar waveguides by ultraviolet preexposure", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1826-1828, 1999.
  4. M. Åslund and J. Canning, "Annealing properties of gratings written into UV-presensitized hydrogen-outdiffused optical fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 692-694, 2000.
  5. J. Nishii, N. Kitamura, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono and H. Kawazoe, "Ultraviolet-radiation-induced chemical reactions through one and two-photon absorption processes in GeO2--SiO2 glasses", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 1184 -1186, 1995.
  6. K. S. Chiang, C. L. Wong, S. Y. Cheng and H. P. Chan, "Refractive-index profiling of graded-index planar waveguides from effective indexes measured with different external refractive indexes", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 1412-1417, Oct. 2000.
  7. P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive-index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 1346-1348, 1995.
  8. T. Saito, T. Hanada, N. Kitamura and M. Kitamura, "Photosensitivity in silica-based waveguides deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition", Appl. Opt., vol. 37, pp. 2242-2244, 1998.
  9. K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, J. Zhang and R. Tam, "Fabrication of strong long-period gratings in hydrogen-free fibers with 157-nm F2 laser radiation", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, pp. 771-773, 2001.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.