Abstract

This work analyzes the effect of the proton-concentration-to-refractive-index relation on the computation of waveguiding properties of well-annealed proton-exchanged channel waveguides fabricated in a LiNbO3 substrate. Several of such relations are presented in literature. The application of these different relations in the numerical analysis results in a very different propagation behavior for the waveguide. For comparison purposes, an empirical relation that fits the published refractive-index-versus-proton-concentration experimental data for the α crystalline phase is also used.

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References

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  1. X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, "Characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1302-1313, Sept. 1992 .
  2. K. M. Kissa, P. G. Suchoski and D. K. Lewis, "Accelerated aging of annealed proton-exchanged waveguides", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1521-1529, July 1995.
  3. J. M. White and P. F. Heidrich, "Optical waveguide refractive index profiles determined from measurements of mode indices: A simple analysis", Appl. Opt., vol. 15, pp. 151-155, 1976.
  4. T. Veng and T. Skettrup, "Ion exchange model for α-phase proton exchange waveguides in LiNbO3", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 646-649, Apr. 1998.

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Veng and T. Skettrup, "Ion exchange model for α-phase proton exchange waveguides in LiNbO3", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 646-649, Apr. 1998.

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, "Characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1302-1313, Sept. 1992 .

K. M. Kissa, P. G. Suchoski and D. K. Lewis, "Accelerated aging of annealed proton-exchanged waveguides", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1521-1529, July 1995.

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