Abstract

In this paper, we describe a detailed numerical investigation on the relative merits of gain flattened distributed Raman amplification (DRA) and discrete gain flattened amplifiers. We simulate a system with forty 40-Gb/s channels spaced at 100 GHz and compare the performance of three different modulation formats nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ), return-to-zero (RZ) and carrier-suppressed RZ (CS-RZ). Three types of amplifiers, multifrequency backward-and forward-pumped DRAs, and an idealized discrete gain flattened amplifier are examined for various signal powers and transmission distances. For the backward-pumped DRA, we also describe calculated tolerance limits imposed by incomplete dispersion slope compensation and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) level.

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  1. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.
  2. D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk and P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the Manakov-PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1735-1745, Sept. 1997 .

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk and P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the Manakov-PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1735-1745, Sept. 1997 .

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.

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