In this paper, we describe a detailed numerical investigation on the relative merits of gain flattened distributed Raman amplification (DRA) and discrete gain flattened amplifiers. We simulate a system with forty 40-Gb/s channels spaced at 100 GHz and compare the performance of three different modulation formats nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ), return-to-zero (RZ) and carrier-suppressed RZ (CS-RZ). Three types of amplifiers, multifrequency backward-and forward-pumped DRAs, and an idealized discrete gain flattened amplifier are examined for various signal powers and transmission distances. For the backward-pumped DRA, we also describe calculated tolerance limits imposed by incomplete dispersion slope compensation and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) level.
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