Abstract

A robust interferometric fiber-optic current sensor with inherent temperature compensation of the Faraday effect is presented. Sensor configurations based on Sagnac and polarization-rotated reflection interferometers are considered. The sensing fiber is residing and thermally annealed in a coiled capillary of fused silica. The capillary is embedded in silicone within a ring-shaped housing. It is theoretically and experimentally shown that the temperature dependence of the birefringent fiber-optic phase retarders of the interferometers can be employed to balance the temperature dependence of the Faraday effect (0.7 x 10-4 / C). Insensitivity of the sensor to temperature within 0.2% is demonstrated between - 35 C and 85 C. The influence of the phase retarders on the linearity of the sensor is also addressed. Furthermore, the sensitivity to vibration of the two configurations at frequencies up to 500 Hz and accelerations up to 10 g is compared. High immunity of the reflective sensor to mechanical perturbations is verified.

© 2002 IEEE

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  1. Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan and D. A. Jackson, "Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 3097-3111, 1995.
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  3. D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day and S. M. Etzel, "Annealing of linear birefringence in single-mode fiber coils: Applications to optical fiber current sensors", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1031-1037, Aug. 1991.
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  5. R. Ulrich and A. Simon, "Polarization optics of twisted single-mode fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 2241-2251, 1979.
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  8. P. Menke and T. Bosselmann, "Temperature compensation in magneto-optic ac current sensors using an intelligent ac-dc signal evaluation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1362-1370, July 1995 .
  9. A. Papp and H. Harms, "Magnetooptical current transformer 1: Principles", Appl. Opt., vol. 19, no. 22, pp. 3729-3734, 1980.
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  14. J. Blake, P. Tantaswadi and R.T. de Carvalho, "In-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, pp. 116-121, Jan. 1996.
  15. A. H. Rose, S. M. Etzel and C. M. Wang, "Verdet constant dispersion in annealed optical fiber current sensors", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 803-807, July 1997.
  16. S. X. Short, A. A. Tselikov, J. U. de Arruda and J. N. Blake, "Imperfect quarter-waveplate compensation in Sagnac interferometer-type current sensors", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1212-1219, July 1998.
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  21. S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell and J. Blake, "An experimental study of acoustic vibration effects in optical fiber current sensors", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, pp. 1702-1706, Oct. 1996.
  22. R. B. Dyott, , private communication, 1998
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J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

R. I. Laming and D. N. Payne, "Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 2084-2094, Dec. 1989.

P. Menke and T. Bosselmann, "Temperature compensation in magneto-optic ac current sensors using an intelligent ac-dc signal evaluation", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1362-1370, July 1995 .

D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day and S. M. Etzel, "Annealing of linear birefringence in single-mode fiber coils: Applications to optical fiber current sensors", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1031-1037, Aug. 1991.

A. H. Rose, S. M. Etzel and C. M. Wang, "Verdet constant dispersion in annealed optical fiber current sensors", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 803-807, July 1997.

A. Enokihara, M. Izutsu and T. Sueta, "Optical fiber sensors using the method of polarization-rotated reflection", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 5, pp. 1584-1590, Nov. 1987 .

S. X. Short, A. A. Tselikov, J. U. de Arruda and J. N. Blake, "Imperfect quarter-waveplate compensation in Sagnac interferometer-type current sensors", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1212-1219, July 1998.

Other (18)

G. Frosio, "Reciprocal interferometers for fiber-optic Faraday current sensors", Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Neuchatel, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1992.

G. Frosio and R. Dandliker, "Reciprocal reflection interferometer for a fiber-optic Faraday current sensor", Appl. Opt., vol. 33, no. 25, pp. 6111-6122, 1994.

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell and J. Blake, "An experimental study of acoustic vibration effects in optical fiber current sensors", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, pp. 1702-1706, Oct. 1996.

R. B. Dyott, , private communication, 1998

F. Zhang and J. W. Lit, "Temperature and strain sensitivity measurements of high-birefringent polarization maintaining fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 32, no. 13, pp. 2213-2218, 1993.

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems-Part I: Desciption and discussion of the calculus", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 31, pp. 488-493, 1941.

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre and H. J. Shaw, "An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-2, pp. 91-107, 1984.

Y. N. Ning, Z. P. Wang, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan and D. A. Jackson, "Recent progress in optical current sensing techniques", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 3097-3111, 1995.

"International standard for current transformers", International Electrotechnical Comission (IEC), Geneva, Switzerland, IEC 185, 1987.

K. Kurosawa, S. Yoshida, K. Sakamoto, I. Masuda and T. Yamashita, "An optical fiber-type current sensor utilizing the Faraday effect of flint glass fiber", in Proc. Int. Conf. Optical Fibre Sensors , vol. 2360, 1994, pp. 24-27.

R. Ulrich and A. Simon, "Polarization optics of twisted single-mode fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 2241-2251, 1979.

F. Maystre and A. Bertholds, "Magneto-optic current sensor using a helical-fiber Fabry-Perot resonator", Opt. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 587-589, 1989.

A. Papp and H. Harms, "Magnetooptical current transformer 1: Principles", Appl. Opt., vol. 19, no. 22, pp. 3729-3734, 1980.

P. A. Nicatti and P. Robert, "Stabilized current sensor using a Sagnac interferometer", J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., vol. 21, pp. 791-796, 1988.

P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, T. E. Milner and M. N. Deeter, "Temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses", Appl. Opt., vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1176-1178, 1991.

G. Frosio, K. Hug and R. Dandliker, "All-fiber Sagnac current sensor,"in Proc. Opto'92, Paris France: 1992, pp. 560-564.

K. Bohnert, H. Brandle and G. Frosio, "Field test of interferometric optical fiber high-voltage and current sensors", in Proc. Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors, vol. 2360, 1994, pp. 16-19.

J. Blake, P. Tantaswadi and R.T. de Carvalho, "In-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, pp. 116-121, Jan. 1996.

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