Abstract

We present a detailed investigation into the sensitivity of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) as a function of temperature, strain, and surrounding refractive index, with particular attention to the higher order cladding modes and the possibilities for ultrasensitive sensors. From a general theoretical analysis, we identify a general sensitivity factor which offers new physical insight into LPFG behavior and represents a useful design aid in conjunction with a set of measurand-specific sensitivity factors. Our analysis reveals the existence of turning points in the mode dispersion characteristics at which ultrasensitive operation may be obtained. In an extensive set of coordinated experiments, we verify the theoretical predictions with close agreement and provide demonstrations of the device behavior close to the turning points. Alternative sensor schemes for temperature, strain, and refractive index based,respectively, on measurement of the dual resonance characteristic of the modes and on the transmission characteristics close to the turning points, utilizing higher order modes of the LPFG, are presented. For two variables at least,we record the highest LPFG sensitivities yet reported.

© 2002 IEEE

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 58-64, Jan. 1996.
  2. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, V. Bhatia and J. B. Judkins, "Long-period fiber gratings as gain-flattening and laser stabilizing devices", in Proc. IOOC'95, June 1995.
  3. X. J. Gu, "Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation fiber filter and light source using cascaded long-period fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 509-510, 1998.
  4. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson and I. Skinner, "Efficient mode conversion in telecommunication fiber using externally written gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, pp. 1270-1272, Aug. 1990.
  5. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 692-694, 1996.
  6. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to the external index of refraction", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1606-1612, Sept. 1998.
  7. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams and I. Bennion, "Optical bend sensor based on measurement of resonance mode splitting of long-period fiber grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 531-533, May 2000.
  8. L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams and I. Bennion, "Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 5, pp. 1373-1379, Sept./Oct. 1999.
  9. A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 445-447, Apr. 1999.
  10. X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 649-651, Sept. 1999 .
  11. X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1580-1581, May 1999.
  12. X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 216-218, Feb. 2001.
  13. T. W. MacDougall, S. Pilevar, C. W. Haggans and M. A. Jackson, "Generalized expression for the growth of long period gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1449-1451, Oct. 1998.
  14. M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides, New York: Wiley, 1981.
  15. V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "Long-period fiber gratings with variable coupling for real-time sensing applications", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 203-205, 2000.
  16. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 966-967, Apr. 2000.
  17. S. Ramachandran, M. Yan, L. Crowsar, A. Carra, P. Wisk and R. Huff, "Large bandwith, highly efficient mode coupling using long-period gratings in dispersion tailored fibers", in Proc. OFC'01, 2001,MC2,. pp. MC2_1-MC2_3.

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 58-64, Jan. 1996.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to the external index of refraction", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1606-1612, Sept. 1998.

Other (15)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, V. Bhatia and J. B. Judkins, "Long-period fiber gratings as gain-flattening and laser stabilizing devices", in Proc. IOOC'95, June 1995.

X. J. Gu, "Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation fiber filter and light source using cascaded long-period fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 509-510, 1998.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. Johnson and I. Skinner, "Efficient mode conversion in telecommunication fiber using externally written gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, pp. 1270-1272, Aug. 1990.

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 692-694, 1996.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams and I. Bennion, "Optical bend sensor based on measurement of resonance mode splitting of long-period fiber grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 531-533, May 2000.

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams and I. Bennion, "Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 5, pp. 1373-1379, Sept./Oct. 1999.

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 445-447, Apr. 1999.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 649-651, Sept. 1999 .

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1580-1581, May 1999.

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 216-218, Feb. 2001.

T. W. MacDougall, S. Pilevar, C. W. Haggans and M. A. Jackson, "Generalized expression for the growth of long period gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1449-1451, Oct. 1998.

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides, New York: Wiley, 1981.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "Long-period fiber gratings with variable coupling for real-time sensing applications", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 203-205, 2000.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 966-967, Apr. 2000.

S. Ramachandran, M. Yan, L. Crowsar, A. Carra, P. Wisk and R. Huff, "Large bandwith, highly efficient mode coupling using long-period gratings in dispersion tailored fibers", in Proc. OFC'01, 2001,MC2,. pp. MC2_1-MC2_3.

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