Abstract

Proton-exchanged planar waveguides have been fabricated on Z-cut and X-cut lithium niobate crystals by using a new proton source formed by a mixture of benzoic and adipic acids. Waveguide index profiles and optical characteristics have been obtained at different values of the adipic-benzoic acid concentration ratio. The samples have been structurally characterized by Raman and infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and double-crystal X-ray diffraction. Good quality samples have been fabricated by using 30 mol% ratio dilution, showing very low scattering levels (<0.1 dB/cm), relatively high electrooptic coefficient (r33 = 0.88 pm/V), and low relative percentage of interstitial protons (26%). The main factor limiting the waveguide optical properties is the substitutional-interstitial proton ratio, which can be easily controlled to produce good quality waveguides. A demonstration of the repeatability of the exchange process in the acid mixture is also provided.

[IEEE ]

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References

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  1. Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov and O. Y. Feoktistova, "LiNbO3 optical waveguide fabrication by high-temperature proton exchange", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 562-568, Apr. 2000 .
  2. J. Webjorn, "Structural influence of proton exchange on domain-inverted lithium niobate revealed by means of selective etching", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 589-594, Apr. 1993.
  3. I. Savatinova, S. Tonchev, R. Todorov, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro and C. C. Ziling, "Electro-optic effect in proton exchanged LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 403-409, Mar. 1996.

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov and O. Y. Feoktistova, "LiNbO3 optical waveguide fabrication by high-temperature proton exchange", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 562-568, Apr. 2000 .

J. Webjorn, "Structural influence of proton exchange on domain-inverted lithium niobate revealed by means of selective etching", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 589-594, Apr. 1993.

I. Savatinova, S. Tonchev, R. Todorov, M. N. Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro and C. C. Ziling, "Electro-optic effect in proton exchanged LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 403-409, Mar. 1996.

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