Abstract

We present a comprehensive treatment of optically preamplified direct detection receivers for non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) on/off keying modulation, taking into account the influence of different (N)RZ optical pulse shapes, specified at the receiver input, and filter transfer functions; optical Fabry-Prot filters (FPFs) and Bragg gratings as well as electrical fifth-order Bessel and first-order RC low-pass filters are considered. We determine optimum optical and electrical filter bandwidths and analyze the impact of bandwidth deviations on receiver sensitivity. Optimum receiver performance relies on a balance between noise and intersymbol interference (ISI) for NRZ transmission, while for RZ reception detection noise has to be traded against filter-induced signal energy rejection. Both for NRZ and 33% duty cycle RZ, optical filter bandwidths of around twice the data rate are found to be optimum. Receivers using RZ coding are shown to closely approach the quantum limit, and thus to outperform NRZ-based systems by several decibels. We further analyze the impact of important degrading effects on receiver sensitivity and optimum receiver bandwidths,including receiver noise, finite extinction ratio, chirp, and optical carrier frequency (or optical filter center frequency) fluctuations.

[IEEE ]

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  1. N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 1071-1082, 1989.
  2. D. Marcuse, "Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1816-1823, 1990.
  3. I. Tafur Monroy and G. Einarsson, "Bit error evaluation of optically preamplified direct detection receivers with Fabry-Perot optical filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1546-1553, 1997.
  4. C. Lawetz and J. C. Cartledge, "Performance of optically preamplified receivers with Fabry-Perot optical filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 2467-2474, 1996.
  5. P. J. Winzer and A. Kalmar, "Sensitivity enhancement of optical receivers by impulsive coding", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 171-177, 1999.
  6. M. Pauer, P. J. Winzer and W. R. Leeb, "Bit error probability reduction in direct detection optical receivers using RZ coding", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1255-1262, Sept. 2001.
  7. A. Carbalar and M. A. Muriel, "Phase reconstruction from reflectivity in fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1314-1322, 1997.
  8. J. Lee and C. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1224-1229, 1994.
  9. F. Koyama and K. Iga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 87-92, 1988.
  10. O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano and M. Naganuma, "Chirping characteristics and frequency response of MQW optical intensity modulator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 71-76, 1992.
  11. J. C. Cartledge, "Comparison of effective -parameters for semiconductor Mach-Zehnder optical modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 372-379, 1998.

J. Lightwave Technol. (11)

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 1071-1082, 1989.

D. Marcuse, "Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1816-1823, 1990.

I. Tafur Monroy and G. Einarsson, "Bit error evaluation of optically preamplified direct detection receivers with Fabry-Perot optical filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1546-1553, 1997.

C. Lawetz and J. C. Cartledge, "Performance of optically preamplified receivers with Fabry-Perot optical filters", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 2467-2474, 1996.

P. J. Winzer and A. Kalmar, "Sensitivity enhancement of optical receivers by impulsive coding", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 171-177, 1999.

M. Pauer, P. J. Winzer and W. R. Leeb, "Bit error probability reduction in direct detection optical receivers using RZ coding", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 1255-1262, Sept. 2001.

A. Carbalar and M. A. Muriel, "Phase reconstruction from reflectivity in fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1314-1322, 1997.

J. Lee and C. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1224-1229, 1994.

F. Koyama and K. Iga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 87-92, 1988.

O. Mitomi, S. Nojima, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, K. Kawano and M. Naganuma, "Chirping characteristics and frequency response of MQW optical intensity modulator", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 71-76, 1992.

J. C. Cartledge, "Comparison of effective -parameters for semiconductor Mach-Zehnder optical modulators", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 372-379, 1998.

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