Abstract

Analytical expression of signal bandwidth of general straight and tapered N× N multimode interference (MMI) couplers is presented. The signal bandwidth is characterized as a function of mode relative energy, mode propagation delay time, and mode pulse broadening in the multimode section of MMI coupler. The model is used to evaluate the signal bandwidth of specific couplers. Results indicate that the signal bandwidth decreases seriously with the increase of channel number and channel guide space. Compared with the straight MMI coupler, the tapered MMI coupler has an improved signal bandwidth.

© 2001 IEEE

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  1. O. Bryngdahl, "Image formation using self-imaging technique", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 63, pp. 416-318, 1973.
  2. R. UlRich, "Image formation by phase coincidences in optical waveguides", Opt. Comm., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 259-264, 1975.
  3. R. Ulrich and G. Ankele, "Self-imaging in homogeneous planar waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 337-339, 1975.
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  13. D. S. Levy, K. H. Park, R. Scarmozzino, K. M. Osgood Jr., C. Dries, P. Studebkov and S. Forrest, "Fabrication of ultracompact 3-dB 2× 2 MMI power splitters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1009-1011, 1999.
  14. P. A. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann and H. Melchior, "New 2× 2 and 1× 3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2286-2293, 1996.
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  17. R. März, Integrated Optics: Design and Modeling, Boston, MA: Artech House, 1995, pp. 163-167.
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  19. R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi/Si and Si-on-SiO2", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, pp. 1971-1973, 1991.
  20. D. Marcuse, "Pulse propagation in multimode dielectric waveguides", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1199-1232, 1972 .

Other (20)

O. Bryngdahl, "Image formation using self-imaging technique", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 63, pp. 416-318, 1973.

R. UlRich, "Image formation by phase coincidences in optical waveguides", Opt. Comm., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 259-264, 1975.

R. Ulrich and G. Ankele, "Self-imaging in homogeneous planar waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 337-339, 1975.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano and M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerance of multimode interference couplers", J. of Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1004-1009, 1994.

M. A. Fardad and M. Fallahi, "Sol-gel multimode interference power splitters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 687 -699, 1999.

N. S. Lagali, M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, K. Worhoff and A. Driessen, "Analysis of generalized Mach-Zehnder interferometers for variable-ratio power splitting and optimized switching", J. of Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2542-2550, 1999 .

R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith and K. P. Hilton, "Novel 1× N and N× N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 684-686, 1994.

M. R. Paiam and R. I. MacDonald, "A 12-channel phased-array wavelength multiplexer with multimode interference couplers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 241-243, 1998.

G. W. Euliss, "Temporal characteristic and scaling conditions of multimode interference couplers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1206-1210, 1999.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 615-627, 1995.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li and R. M. Osgood Jr., "A new design for ultracompact multimode interference-based 2× 2 couplers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 96 -98, 1998.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino and R. M. Osgood Jr., "Length reduction of tapered N× N MMI devices", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 830-832, 1998.

D. S. Levy, K. H. Park, R. Scarmozzino, K. M. Osgood Jr., C. Dries, P. Studebkov and S. Forrest, "Fabrication of ultracompact 3-dB 2× 2 MMI power splitters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1009-1011, 1999.

P. A. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann and H. Melchior, "New 2× 2 and 1× 3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2286-2293, 1996.

R. März, Integrated Optics: Design and Modeling, Boston, MA: Artech House, 1995, p. 113.

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorenle, E. J. Abril and M. López, "Improved self-imaging characteristics in 1× N multimode couplers", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron., vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 65-69, 1998.

R. März, Integrated Optics: Design and Modeling, Boston, MA: Artech House, 1995, pp. 163-167.

S. Geckeler, "Pulse broadening in optical fibers with mode mixing", Appl. Opt., vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 2192-2198, 1979.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi/Si and Si-on-SiO2", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, pp. 1971-1973, 1991.

D. Marcuse, "Pulse propagation in multimode dielectric waveguides", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1199-1232, 1972 .

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