Abstract

New, compact multimode interference couplers with tunable power splitting ratios have been realized. Experiments show large tuning ranges. Such couplers are needed to optimize ON-OFF ratios in interferometric devices and may find applications as extremely compact switches.

© 2001 IEEE

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  1. H. Lü, B. Luo, W. Pan and J. Chen, "Tunable output power varying with the splitting ratio of a coupler from a fiber ring semiconductor laser", Appl. Opt., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1764-1766, Mar. 1999.
  2. C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner and L. W. Stulz, "Integrated WDM dynamic power equalizer with potentially low insertion loss", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1443-1445, Oct. 1998.
  3. J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dük and H. Melchior, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 34, pp. 622-633, Apr. 1998.
  4. J. Leuthold, C. H. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer and C. A. Burrus, "100 Gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with an integrated SOA delayed-interference configuration", in Proc. Optical Amplifier and Application Conf. (OAA'2000), Quebec, Canada,July 2000 .
  5. G. Müller, L. Stoll, G. Schulte-Roth and U. Wolff, "Low current plasma effect optical switch on InP", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 115-116, 1990.
  6. Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter and J. E. Baran, "Digital optical switch", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 51, no. 16, pp. 1230-1232, Oct. 1987.
  7. O. Bryngdahl, "Image formation using self-imaging techniques", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 63, pp. 416-419, Apr. 1973 .
  8. L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1843-1845, Dec. 1992.
  9. P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano and M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1004-1009, June 1994.
  10. J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero-and first-order modes", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1228-1239, July 1998.
  11. P. A. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann and H. Melchior, "New 1× 2 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios", in Proc. ECOC'94, Firenze, Italy,Sept. 1994, pp. 669-672.
  12. Q. Lai, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "Arbitrary ratio power splitters using angled silica on silicon multimode interference couplers", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 17, pp. 1576-1577, Aug. 1996.
  13. G. A. Fish, L. A. Coldren and S. P. DenBaars, "Compact InGaAsP/InP 1× 2 optical switch based on carrier induced suppression of modal interference", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 22, pp. 1898-1900, Oct. 1997.
  14. S. Nagai, G. Morishima, M. Yagi and K. Utaka, "InGaAsP/InP multimode inteterference photonic switches for monolithic photonic integrated circuits", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , vol. 38, no. 2B, pp. 1269-1272, Feb. 1999.
  15. M. Yagi, S. Nagai, H. Inayoshi and K. Utaka, "Versatile multimode interfernece photonic switches with partial index-modulation regions", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 533-534, Mar. 2000.
  16. R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux and J. M. Heaton, "Waveguide beam splitters and recombiners based on multimode propagation phenomena", Opt. Lett., vol. 17, no. 14, pp. 991-993, July 1992.
  17. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "General self-imaging properties in N× N multimode interference couplers including phase relations", Appl. Opt., vol. 33, pp. 3905 -3911, July 1994.
  18. J. M. Heaton and R. M. Jenkins, "General matrix theory of self-imaging in multimode interference (MMI) couplers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 212-214, Feb. 1999.
  19. J. Leuthold, C. H. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer and C. A. Burrus, "Compact and fully packaged wavelength converter with integrated delay loop for 40 Gbit-s RZ Signals", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'2000), Baltimore, MD, Mar. 2000,postdeadline paper 17.
  20. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 30, pp. 6898-6910, Oct. 1995.
  21. J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck and K. P. Hilton, "Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 61, pp. 1754-1756, Oct. 1992.
  22. D. S. Levy, K. H. Park, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, C. Dries, P. Studenkov and St. Forrest, "Fabrication of ultracompact 3-dB 2× 2 MMI power splitters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1009-1011, Aug. 1999.

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost and E. C. M. Pennings, "Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1843-1845, Dec. 1992.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano and M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1004-1009, June 1994.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero-and first-order modes", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1228-1239, July 1998.

Other

P. A. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann and H. Melchior, "New 1× 2 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios", in Proc. ECOC'94, Firenze, Italy,Sept. 1994, pp. 669-672.

Q. Lai, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "Arbitrary ratio power splitters using angled silica on silicon multimode interference couplers", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 17, pp. 1576-1577, Aug. 1996.

G. A. Fish, L. A. Coldren and S. P. DenBaars, "Compact InGaAsP/InP 1× 2 optical switch based on carrier induced suppression of modal interference", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 22, pp. 1898-1900, Oct. 1997.

S. Nagai, G. Morishima, M. Yagi and K. Utaka, "InGaAsP/InP multimode inteterference photonic switches for monolithic photonic integrated circuits", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , vol. 38, no. 2B, pp. 1269-1272, Feb. 1999.

M. Yagi, S. Nagai, H. Inayoshi and K. Utaka, "Versatile multimode interfernece photonic switches with partial index-modulation regions", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 533-534, Mar. 2000.

R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux and J. M. Heaton, "Waveguide beam splitters and recombiners based on multimode propagation phenomena", Opt. Lett., vol. 17, no. 14, pp. 991-993, July 1992.

J. M. Heaton and R. M. Jenkins, "General matrix theory of self-imaging in multimode interference (MMI) couplers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 212-214, Feb. 1999.

J. Leuthold, C. H. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer and C. A. Burrus, "Compact and fully packaged wavelength converter with integrated delay loop for 40 Gbit-s RZ Signals", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'2000), Baltimore, MD, Mar. 2000,postdeadline paper 17.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 30, pp. 6898-6910, Oct. 1995.

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck and K. P. Hilton, "Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 61, pp. 1754-1756, Oct. 1992.

D. S. Levy, K. H. Park, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, C. Dries, P. Studenkov and St. Forrest, "Fabrication of ultracompact 3-dB 2× 2 MMI power splitters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1009-1011, Aug. 1999.

H. Lü, B. Luo, W. Pan and J. Chen, "Tunable output power varying with the splitting ratio of a coupler from a fiber ring semiconductor laser", Appl. Opt., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1764-1766, Mar. 1999.

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner and L. W. Stulz, "Integrated WDM dynamic power equalizer with potentially low insertion loss", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1443-1445, Oct. 1998.

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dük and H. Melchior, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 34, pp. 622-633, Apr. 1998.

J. Leuthold, C. H. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer and C. A. Burrus, "100 Gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with an integrated SOA delayed-interference configuration", in Proc. Optical Amplifier and Application Conf. (OAA'2000), Quebec, Canada,July 2000 .

G. Müller, L. Stoll, G. Schulte-Roth and U. Wolff, "Low current plasma effect optical switch on InP", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 115-116, 1990.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter and J. E. Baran, "Digital optical switch", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 51, no. 16, pp. 1230-1232, Oct. 1987.

O. Bryngdahl, "Image formation using self-imaging techniques", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 63, pp. 416-419, Apr. 1973 .

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