Abstract

Dispersion management is becoming paramount in high-speed wavelength-division-multiplexed lightwave systems, that operate at per-channel rates of 40 Gb/s and higher. The dispersion tolerances, in these systems, are small enough that sources of dispersion variation, that are negligible in slower systems, become critically important to network performance. At these high-bit rates, active dispersion compensation modules may be required to respond dynamically to changes occurring in the network, such as variations in the per-channel power, reconfigurations of the channel's path that are caused by add-drop operations, and environmental changes, such as changes in ambient temperature. We present a comprehensive discussion of an emerging tunable dispersion compensating device, based on thermally actuated fiber gratings. These per-channel devices rely on a distributed on-fiber thin film heater, deposited onto the outer surface of a fiber Bragg grating. Current flowing through the thin film generates resistive heating at rates that are governed by the thickness profile of the metal film. A chirp in the grating is obtained by using a thin-film, whose thickness varies with position along the length of the grating in a prescribed manner; the chirp rate is adjusted by varying the applied current. The paper reviews some of the basic characteristics of these devices and their implementation, in a range of different applications, including the mitigation of power penalties associated with optical power variations. We present detailed analysis of the impact of group-delay ripple and polarization-mode dispersion on systems performance, and present results from systems experiments, that demonstrate the performance of these devices at bit rates of 10, 20, 40 and 160 Gb/s. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of this technology, and compare to other devices.

© 2000 IEEE

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  1. T. N. Nielsen, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, P. B. Westbrook, P. B. Hansen and T. A. Strasser, "Fiber Bragg grating tunable dispersion compensator for dynamic post dispersion optimization at 40 Gbit/s", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 173-175, 2000.
  2. M. I. Hayee and A. E. Willner, "Pre-and post-compensation of dispersion nonlinearities in 10 Gb/s WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1271-1273, 1997.
  3. W. H. Hatton and M. Nishimura, "Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in single mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-4, pp. 1552-1555, 1986.
  4. C. K. Madsen, G. Lenz, A. J. Bruce, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez and R. E. Scott, "Integrated all-pass filters for tunable dispersion and dispersion slope compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1623-1625, 1999.
  5. L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tach, C. Yang, C. Mao and S. Cao, "Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 * 10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications, Baltimore, MD, 2000.
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  7. R. Kashyap, H. G. Froehlich, A. Swanton and D. J. Armes, "1.3 m long super-step-chirped fiber Bragg grating with a continuous delay of 13.5 ns and bandwidth 10 nm for broadband dispersion compensation", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 1807-1809, 1996.
  8. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, 1st ed. New York: Academic, 1999.
  9. L. Dong, M. J. Cole, A. D. Ellis, M. Durkin, M. Ibsen, V. Gusmeroli and R. I. Laming, "40 Gbit/s 1.55 um transmission over 109 km of nondispersion shifted fiber with long continuously chirped fiber gratings", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Dallas, TX, 1997.
  10. M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, K. Ennser, M. J. Cole and R. I. Laming, "Long contiuosuly chirped fiber Bragg gratings for compensation of linear and 3rd order dispersion", in Proc. ECOC'97, vol. 2, 1997, pp. 49-52.
  11. L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, F. Forghieri, V. Gusmeroli and D. Scarano, "16 × 10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 840 km SMF using eleven broadband chirped fiber gratings", presented at the ECOC'97, Paper TuC05, 1997.
  12. A. H. Gnauk, L. D. Garrett, F. Forghieri, V. Gusmeroli and D. Scarano, "8 * 20 Gb/s-315 km, 8 * 10 Gb/s-480 km WDM transmission over conventional fiber using multiple broad-band fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1495-1497, 1998.
  13. A. H. Gnauk, J. M. Weisenfield, L. D. Garrett, R. M. Derosier, F. Forghieri, V. Gusmeroli and D. Scarano, "4 * 40 Gb/s 75 km WDM transmission over conventional fiber using a broad-band fiber grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1503 -1505, 1999.
  14. B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, P. B. Westbrook and T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable power efficient dispersion compensating fiber Bragg grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 854-856, 1999.
  15. B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, P. B. Westbrook, T. A. Strasser, T. N. Nielsen, P. B. Hansen and K. F. Dreyer, "Electrically tunable power efficient dispersion compensating fiber Bragg grating for dynamic operation in nonlinear lightwave systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference, San Diego, CA, Postdealine Paper PD-27, 1999.
  16. B. J. Eggleton, T. N. Nielsen, J. A. Rogers, P. S. Westbrook, P. B. Hansen and K. F. Dreyer, "Dispersion compensation in 20 Gbit/s dynamic nonlinear lightwave systems using electrically tunable chirped fiber grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 832-834, 1999.
  17. B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, P. S. Westbrook, G. Burdge, S. Ramachandran, A. A. Abramov, T. N. Nielsen, G. R. Kowach, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Tunable fiber grating devices utilizing integrated thin film heaters,"in WDM Components, D. A. Nolan, Ed. Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 1999,vol. XXIX, pp. 61-72.
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  21. K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Cai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner and J. Feinberg, "Dynamic dispersion compensation in a 10 Gbit/s optical system using a voltage controlled tuned nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 373-375, 1999.
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  23. P. C. Hill and B. J. Eggleton, "Strain gradient chirp of fiber Bragg grating", Electronics Letters, vol. 30, pp. 1172-1174, 1994.
  24. M. Pacheco, A. Medez, L. A. Zenteni and F. Mendoz-Santoyo, "Chirping optical fiber Bragg gratings using tapered-thickness piezoelectric ceramic", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 2348-2350, 1998.
  25. M. M. Ohn, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. G. Xu, F. Bilodeau and K. O. Hill, "Dispersion variable fiber grating using a piezoelectric stack", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 2000-2001, 1996.
  26. J.-X. Cai, K.-M. Fend, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov and J. Feinberg, "Simultaneous tunable dispersion compensation of many WDM channel using a sampled nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1455-1457, 1999.
  27. S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. Mkfee, F. Sladen and B. Wojciechowicz, "High accuracy dispersion measurements of chirped fiber gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1280-1281, 1995.
  28. H. G. Limberger, N. H. Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathe, C. A. P. Muller and G. R. Fox, "Efficient miniature fiber-optic tunable filter based on intracore Bragg grating and electrically resistive coating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 361 -363, 1998.
  29. B. J. Eggleton, A. A. Abramov, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable broadband long period fiber grating filter", presented at the CLEO, Baltimore, MD, Paper CMC3, 1999.
  30. J. A. Rogers, P. Kuo, A. Ahuja, B. J. Eggleton and R. J. Jackman, "Analysis of heat flow in optical fiber devices that use integrated thin film heaters", Appl. Opt., 2000.
  31. H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. London: U.K.: Oxford University Press,
  32. J. Martin and F. Ouellette, "Novel writing techniques of long in-fiber gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 811-812, 1993.
  33. T. A. Strasser, P. J. Chandonnet, J. DeMarko, C. E. Soccolich, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. Digiovanni, M. J. Andrejco and D. S. Shenk, "UV-induced fiber grating OADM devices for efficient bandwidth utilization", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications, 1996, Postdeadline Paper PD8-1.
  34. J. A. Rogers, B. J. Eggleton and P. Kuo, "Temperature stabilized operation of tunable fiber grating devices that use distributed on-fiber thin film heaters", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 2052-2053, 1999.
  35. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 73-80, 1994.
  36. K. Ennser, M. Ibsen, D. Durkin, M. N. Zervas and R. I. Laming, "Influence of nonideal chirped grating characteristics on dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1476-1478, 1999.
  37. T. N. Nielsen, B. J. Eggleton and T. A. Strasser, "Penalties associated with group delay imperfection in optical components for NRZ, RZ and duo-binary encoded signals", presented at the ECOC'99, Nice, France,1999.
  38. V. Gusmeroli and D. Scarano, "Fiber grating dispersion compensators", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications, San Diego, CA, Paper FA4, 1999.
  39. S. G. Evangelides, N. S. Bergano and C. R. Davidson, "Intersymbol interference induced by ripple in fiber Bragg gratings", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications, San Diego, CA, Paper FA2, 1999.
  40. H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth and A. Collar, "Fabrication and systems performance of dispersion compensation gratings", in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications, vol. 1, Nice, France, 1999, pp. 165-167.
  41. F. Ouellette, "The effect of noise on the spectral response of fiber gratings", in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Properties and Applications, Williamsburgh, VA, 1997,Paper BMG13.
  42. R. Feced and M. N. Zervas, "Effects of random noise and amplitude errors in optical fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 90-100, 2000.
  43. S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman and C. Shu, "Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and E-beam written phase masks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 572-574, 1999.
  44. M. Ibsen and R. I. Laming, "Fiber nonuniformity caused Bragg grating imperfections", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications, San Diego, CA, Paper FA1, 1999 .
  45. L. Poladian, "Analysis and modeling of group delay ripple in Bragg gratings", presented at the Bragg Grating, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Stuart, FL, Paper SaA4, 1999.
  46. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1989.
  47. M. Schiano and G. Zaffiro, "Polarization mode dispersion in chirped fiber gratings", in European Conf. Optical Communications, vol. 1, Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 403- 404.
  48. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 73-80, 1994.
  49. F. Forghieri, "WDM systems impairments", presented at the Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Paper WF, 1999.
  50. Y. Frignac and S. Bigo, "Numerical optimization of residual dispersion in dispersion-managed systems at 40 Gbit/s", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication, Baltimore, MD, Paper TuD3-1, 2000.
  51. B. J. Eggleton, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, A. Ahuja, J. A. Rogers, P. S. Westbrook, T. N. Nielsen, S. Stulz and K. Dreyer, "Tunable dispersion compensation in a 160 Gb/s TDM system by a voltage controlled chirped fiber Bragg grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1022 -1024, Aug. 2000.
  52. B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, K. Dreyer, Y. Su, L. E. Nelson, J. E. Johnson, G. Shtengel, A. Bond, D. G. Moodie and A. D. Ellis, "160 Gbit/s single-channel transmission over 300 km nonzero-dispersion fiber with semiconductor based transmitter and demultiplexer", in Proc. ECOC'99, Nice, France, 1999,Postdeadline Paper PD 2.3.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (49)

A. E. Willner, K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Cai, S. Lee, J. Peng and H. Sun, "Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, pp. 1298 -1311, 1999.

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Cai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner and J. Feinberg, "Dynamic dispersion compensation in a 10 Gbit/s optical system using a voltage controlled tuned nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 373-375, 1999.

J. Lauzon, S. Thibault, M. J and F. Ouellette, "Implementation and characterization of fiber Bragg gratings linearly chirped by temperature gradient", Opt. Lett. , vol. 19, pp. 2027-2029, 1994.

P. C. Hill and B. J. Eggleton, "Strain gradient chirp of fiber Bragg grating", Electronics Letters, vol. 30, pp. 1172-1174, 1994.

M. Pacheco, A. Medez, L. A. Zenteni and F. Mendoz-Santoyo, "Chirping optical fiber Bragg gratings using tapered-thickness piezoelectric ceramic", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 2348-2350, 1998.

M. M. Ohn, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. G. Xu, F. Bilodeau and K. O. Hill, "Dispersion variable fiber grating using a piezoelectric stack", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 2000-2001, 1996.

J.-X. Cai, K.-M. Fend, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov and J. Feinberg, "Simultaneous tunable dispersion compensation of many WDM channel using a sampled nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1455-1457, 1999.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. Mkfee, F. Sladen and B. Wojciechowicz, "High accuracy dispersion measurements of chirped fiber gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1280-1281, 1995.

H. G. Limberger, N. H. Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathe, C. A. P. Muller and G. R. Fox, "Efficient miniature fiber-optic tunable filter based on intracore Bragg grating and electrically resistive coating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 361 -363, 1998.

B. J. Eggleton, A. A. Abramov, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable broadband long period fiber grating filter", presented at the CLEO, Baltimore, MD, Paper CMC3, 1999.

J. A. Rogers, P. Kuo, A. Ahuja, B. J. Eggleton and R. J. Jackman, "Analysis of heat flow in optical fiber devices that use integrated thin film heaters", Appl. Opt., 2000.

H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. London: U.K.: Oxford University Press,

J. Martin and F. Ouellette, "Novel writing techniques of long in-fiber gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 811-812, 1993.

T. A. Strasser, P. J. Chandonnet, J. DeMarko, C. E. Soccolich, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. Digiovanni, M. J. Andrejco and D. S. Shenk, "UV-induced fiber grating OADM devices for efficient bandwidth utilization", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications, 1996, Postdeadline Paper PD8-1.

J. A. Rogers, B. J. Eggleton and P. Kuo, "Temperature stabilized operation of tunable fiber grating devices that use distributed on-fiber thin film heaters", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 2052-2053, 1999.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 73-80, 1994.

K. Ennser, M. Ibsen, D. Durkin, M. N. Zervas and R. I. Laming, "Influence of nonideal chirped grating characteristics on dispersion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1476-1478, 1999.

T. N. Nielsen, B. J. Eggleton and T. A. Strasser, "Penalties associated with group delay imperfection in optical components for NRZ, RZ and duo-binary encoded signals", presented at the ECOC'99, Nice, France,1999.

V. Gusmeroli and D. Scarano, "Fiber grating dispersion compensators", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications, San Diego, CA, Paper FA4, 1999.

S. G. Evangelides, N. S. Bergano and C. R. Davidson, "Intersymbol interference induced by ripple in fiber Bragg gratings", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications, San Diego, CA, Paper FA2, 1999.

H. Rourke, B. Pugh, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Baker, B. Napier, P. Greene, D. Goodchild, J. Fells, R. Epworth and A. Collar, "Fabrication and systems performance of dispersion compensation gratings", in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications, vol. 1, Nice, France, 1999, pp. 165-167.

F. Ouellette, "The effect of noise on the spectral response of fiber gratings", in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Properties and Applications, Williamsburgh, VA, 1997,Paper BMG13.

R. Kashyap, H. G. Froehlich, A. Swanton and D. J. Armes, "1.3 m long super-step-chirped fiber Bragg grating with a continuous delay of 13.5 ns and bandwidth 10 nm for broadband dispersion compensation", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 1807-1809, 1996.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, 1st ed. New York: Academic, 1999.

L. Dong, M. J. Cole, A. D. Ellis, M. Durkin, M. Ibsen, V. Gusmeroli and R. I. Laming, "40 Gbit/s 1.55 um transmission over 109 km of nondispersion shifted fiber with long continuously chirped fiber gratings", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Dallas, TX, 1997.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, K. Ennser, M. J. Cole and R. I. Laming, "Long contiuosuly chirped fiber Bragg gratings for compensation of linear and 3rd order dispersion", in Proc. ECOC'97, vol. 2, 1997, pp. 49-52.

L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, F. Forghieri, V. Gusmeroli and D. Scarano, "16 × 10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 840 km SMF using eleven broadband chirped fiber gratings", presented at the ECOC'97, Paper TuC05, 1997.

A. H. Gnauk, L. D. Garrett, F. Forghieri, V. Gusmeroli and D. Scarano, "8 * 20 Gb/s-315 km, 8 * 10 Gb/s-480 km WDM transmission over conventional fiber using multiple broad-band fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1495-1497, 1998.

A. H. Gnauk, J. M. Weisenfield, L. D. Garrett, R. M. Derosier, F. Forghieri, V. Gusmeroli and D. Scarano, "4 * 40 Gb/s 75 km WDM transmission over conventional fiber using a broad-band fiber grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1503 -1505, 1999.

B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, P. B. Westbrook and T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable power efficient dispersion compensating fiber Bragg grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 854-856, 1999.

B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, P. B. Westbrook, T. A. Strasser, T. N. Nielsen, P. B. Hansen and K. F. Dreyer, "Electrically tunable power efficient dispersion compensating fiber Bragg grating for dynamic operation in nonlinear lightwave systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference, San Diego, CA, Postdealine Paper PD-27, 1999.

B. J. Eggleton, T. N. Nielsen, J. A. Rogers, P. S. Westbrook, P. B. Hansen and K. F. Dreyer, "Dispersion compensation in 20 Gbit/s dynamic nonlinear lightwave systems using electrically tunable chirped fiber grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 832-834, 1999.

B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, P. S. Westbrook, G. Burdge, S. Ramachandran, A. A. Abramov, T. N. Nielsen, G. R. Kowach, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Tunable fiber grating devices utilizing integrated thin film heaters,"in WDM Components, D. A. Nolan, Ed. Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 1999,vol. XXIX, pp. 61-72.

J. A. Rogers, B. J. Eggleton, J. R. Pedrazzani and T. A. Strasser, "Distributed on-fiber thin film heaters for fiber Bragg gratings with adjustable chirp", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 74, pp. 3131-3133, 1999.

S. J. Mihailov, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, D. Stryckman and C. Shu, "Comparison of fiber Bragg grating dispersion-compensators made with holographic and E-beam written phase masks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 572-574, 1999.

M. Ibsen and R. I. Laming, "Fiber nonuniformity caused Bragg grating imperfections", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications, San Diego, CA, Paper FA1, 1999 .

L. Poladian, "Analysis and modeling of group delay ripple in Bragg gratings", presented at the Bragg Grating, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Stuart, FL, Paper SaA4, 1999.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1989.

M. Schiano and G. Zaffiro, "Polarization mode dispersion in chirped fiber gratings", in European Conf. Optical Communications, vol. 1, Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 403- 404.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 73-80, 1994.

F. Forghieri, "WDM systems impairments", presented at the Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Paper WF, 1999.

Y. Frignac and S. Bigo, "Numerical optimization of residual dispersion in dispersion-managed systems at 40 Gbit/s", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication, Baltimore, MD, Paper TuD3-1, 2000.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, A. Ahuja, J. A. Rogers, P. S. Westbrook, T. N. Nielsen, S. Stulz and K. Dreyer, "Tunable dispersion compensation in a 160 Gb/s TDM system by a voltage controlled chirped fiber Bragg grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1022 -1024, Aug. 2000.

B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, K. Dreyer, Y. Su, L. E. Nelson, J. E. Johnson, G. Shtengel, A. Bond, D. G. Moodie and A. D. Ellis, "160 Gbit/s single-channel transmission over 300 km nonzero-dispersion fiber with semiconductor based transmitter and demultiplexer", in Proc. ECOC'99, Nice, France, 1999,Postdeadline Paper PD 2.3.

T. N. Nielsen, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, P. B. Westbrook, P. B. Hansen and T. A. Strasser, "Fiber Bragg grating tunable dispersion compensator for dynamic post dispersion optimization at 40 Gbit/s", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 173-175, 2000.

M. I. Hayee and A. E. Willner, "Pre-and post-compensation of dispersion nonlinearities in 10 Gb/s WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1271-1273, 1997.

W. H. Hatton and M. Nishimura, "Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in single mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-4, pp. 1552-1555, 1986.

C. K. Madsen, G. Lenz, A. J. Bruce, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez and R. E. Scott, "Integrated all-pass filters for tunable dispersion and dispersion slope compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1623-1625, 1999.

L. D. Garrett, A. H. Gnauck, M. H. Eiselt, R. W. Tach, C. Yang, C. Mao and S. Cao, "Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 * 10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications, Baltimore, MD, 2000.

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