Electromagnetic band structure can produce either an enhancement or a suppression of spontaneous emission from two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal thin films. We believe that such effects might be important for light emitting diodes. Our experiments were based on thin-film InGaAs/InP 2-D photonic crystals at ambient temperature, but the concepts would apply equally to InGaN thin films, for example. We show that the magnitude of Purcell enhancement factor, Fp 2, for spatially extended band modes, is similar to that for a tiny mode in a three-dimensional (3-D) nanocavity. Nonetheless, light extraction enhancement that arises from Zone folding or Bragg scattering of the photonic bands is probably the more important effect, and an external quantum efficiency > 50% is possible. Angle resolved photoluminescence from inside the photonic crystal gives a direct spectral readout of the internal 2-D photonic band dispersion. The tradeoffs for employing various photonic crystal structures in high efficiency light-emitting diodes are analyzed.
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