We present a detailed study of two-dimensional(2-D) photonic crystals based on macroporous silicon technology, showing a broad range of wavelengths accessible for applications with this material. In this work, we have reached 1.55 m, this certainly represents a decisive issue for this technology. First, the reflection performances of a hexagonal and a triangular lattice of air holes are compared. The triangular lattice reduces techological requirements because the complete photonic bandgap (PBG) results from the overlap of broader forbidden bands of lower order. Second, a combined experimental and theoretical study is presented of the reflection properties of a 2-D photonic crystal in a three-dimensional (3-D) optical environment. This reveals the critical parameters that can degrade the performances of such 2-D structures. Reflection coefficients up to 98% are obtained with optical quality interfaces. Finally, a complete PBG centered at 1.55 m is demonstrated with a submicrometer period triangular lattice defined by holographic lithography. The influence of the air filling factor on the band position and the interface quality is analyzed by reflection measurements. The overall results show the high flexibility of the macroporous silicon technology and its applicability to integrated optics at telecommunication wavelengths.
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