Abstract

To reduce the coupling loss of a fiber-to-ridge waveguide connection, a planar silica spot-size converter for a wavelength of 1.55 \mum is implemented in the form of a nonperiodic segmented waveguide structure with irregular tapering. A simple single-step lithography process is sufficient for the fabrication of the planar structures. An evolutionary algorithm has been successfully applied for the optimization. The simulated results obtained with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) program are compared with measurements of implemented couplers, showing very good agreement. A waveguide-to-fiber coupling efficiency improvement exceeding 2 dB per converter is shown. Structures obtained with this approach are very short ({\sim}140\;\mum) and simple to integrate on the same wafer with other planar structures such as phased arrays or ring resonator structures.

[IEEE ]

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Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

G. Wenger, L. Stoll, B. Weiss, M. Schienle, R. Muller-Nawrath, S. Eichinger, J. Muller, B. Acklin, and G. Muller, "Design and fabrication of monolithic optical spot size transformers (MOST's) for highly efficient fiber-chip coupling," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1782-1790, Oct. 1994.

R. Zengerle, B. Jacobs, W. Weiershausen, K. Faltin, and A. Kunz, "Efficient spot-size transformation using spatially separated tapered InP/InGaAsP twin waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 448-453, Mar. 1996.

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, Y. Sakai, M. Okamoto, and S.-I. Matsumoto, "Optical spot-size convertors for low-loss coupling between fibers and optoelectronic semiconductor devices," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 1714-1720, July 1996.

Z. Weissman and I. Hendel, "Analysis of periodically segmented waveguide mode expanders," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 2053-2058, Oct. 1995.

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "Modes of periodically segmented waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 1831-1838, Nov. 1993.

T. Liang and R. W. Ziolkowski, "Mode conversion of ultrafast pulses by grating structures in layered dielectric waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1966-1973, Oct. 1997.

Opt. Lett. (2)

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