Abstract

We report a new type of polymer waveguide for two-dimensional (2-D) mode size transformation in which \Delta n (refractive index difference between core and cladding) is properly controlled along the waveguide axis while the core cross section is kept uniform. The beam diameter in the \Delta n-controlled waveguide where the core diameter is 3.7 \mum and \Delta n changes from 0.0027 to 0.0009 toward one end in the 5 mm-gradient \Delta n region, is about twice as large as that in a normal waveguide where \Delta n is 0.0027. The optical loss accompanied by mode size transformation is calculated to be less than 2.5% based on beam propagation methods (BPM's).

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Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

H. L. Cox Jr., S. D. O'Connor, P. R. Ashley, and R. L. Morgan, "Development of tapered glass coupling waveguides for source radiation input into multichannel LiNbO3 modulator arrays," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 1045-1050, 1988.

H. Yanagawa, S. Nakamura, K. Watanabe, and H. Miyazawa, "Mode field profile converting optical channel waveguide with tapered refractive index and cross-section," Electron. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 849-850, 1989; H. Yanagawa, T. Shimizu, S. Nakamura, and I. Ohyama, "Index-and-dimensional taper and its application to photonic devices," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 587-602, 1992.

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, "Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1151-1161, 1990.

P. G. Suchoski Jr. and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Constant-width variable-index transition for efficient Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide-fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-5, pp. 1246-1251, 1987; H. Zhenguang, R. Srivastava, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Low-loss small-mode passive waveguides and near-adiabatic tapers in BK7 glass," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 1590-1596, 1989.

J. Buus, W. J. Stewart, J. Haes, J. Willems, and R. G. Baets, "Spot size expansion for laser-to-fiber coupling using an integrated multimode coupler," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 582-588, 1993.

Z. Weissman and I. Hendel, "Analysis of periodically segmented waveguide mode expanders," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 2053-2058, 1995.

--, "Embedded channel polyimide waveguide fabrication by direct elctron beam writing method," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1718-1723, 1995.

Opt. Lett. (2)

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