Abstract

The performance of a dc to 3 GHz externally modulated link utilizing balanced high-power photodetection is presented. Nonlinearity measurements of high power photodiodes show 1 dB compression currents in excess of 55 mA and an output third-order intercept point of {+}32 to {+}34 dBm. These high current photodetectors permit the use of high power lasers as external modulator sources for low noise fiber optic links with only small degradations in the predicted link dynamic range. An externally modulated link with a 240 mW NdYAG laser, a dual-output 4-V V_{\pi} (dc) modulator, and balanced 100 mA total photocurrent yielded a link noise figure from 15.5 to 17.5 dB, a spur-free dynamic range of 119.5 dBHz2/3, and a 1-dB compression dynamic range of 168.4 dBHz.

© 1998 IEEE

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J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

W. K. Burns, "Linearized optical modulator with fifth order correction," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1724-1727, Aug. 1995.

M. Nazarathy, J. Berger, A. J. Ley, I. M. Levi, and Y. Kagan, "Progress in externally modulated AM CATV transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 82-105, Jan. 1993.

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 84-96, Jan. 1996.

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, "Intermodulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 3-6, Jan. 1993.

Other (26)

G. E. Betts, "Linearized modulator for suboctave-bandpass optical analog links," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 42, pp. 2642-2649, Dec. 1994.

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, "Effects of high space-charge fields on the response of microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 639-641, May 1994.

R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 70-72, Jan. 1993.

A. Ambrozy, Electronic Noise.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982, p. 145.

L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, and R. D. Esman,"Optimizing the ultrawide-band photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 45, pp. 1384-1389, Aug. 1997.

M. L. Farwell, W. S. C. Chang, and D. R. Huber, "Increased linear dynamic range by low biasing the Mach-Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 779-782, July 1993.

S. K. Korotky and R. M. DeRidder, "Dual parallel modulation schemes for low-distortion analog optical transmission," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 8, pp. 1377-1380, Sept. 1990.

M. L. Farwell, Z. Q. Lin, E. Wooten, and W. S. C. Chang, "An electrooptic intensity modulator with improved linearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 792-795, Sept. 1991.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, A. S. Daryoush, and N. R. Samant, "Maximum dynamic range operation of a microwave external modulation fiber-optic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 41, pp. 1299-1306, Aug. 1993.

G. L. Heiter, "Characterization of nonlinearities in microwave devices and systems," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-21, pp. 797-805, Dec. 1973.

S. A. Maas, Nonlinear Microwave Circuits.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988, pp. 155-207.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Yee, "A dual-detector optical heterodyne receiver for local oscillator noise suppression, J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-3, pp. 1110-1122, 1985.

A. Madjar and O. Malz, "A novel architecture of a balanced fiber-optic communication link for laser RIN reduction," Microwave Optic. Tech. Lett., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 15-18, Jan. 1993.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, J. MacDonald, and J. Prince, "Balanced receiver external modulation fiber-optic link architecture with reduced noise figure," in Proc. 1993 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., 1993, pp. 723-726.

G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, C. N. Cox III, and S. D. Lowney, "High-performance optical analog link using external modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 404-406, Nov. 1989.

W. B. Bridges and J. H. Schaffner, "Distortion in linearized electrooptic modulators," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol., vol. 43, pp. 2184-2197, Sept. 1995.

H. Ogawa and H. Kamitsuna, "Fiber optic microwave links using balanced laser harmonic generation, and balanced/image cancellation laser mixing," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 40, pp. 2278-2284, Dec. 1992.

M.J. LaGasse and S. Thaniyavarn, "Bias-free high-dynamic-range phase-modulated fiber-optic link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 681-683, May 1997.

C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, R. B. Welstand, J. T. Zhu, P. K. L. Yu, Y. Z. Liu, and J. M. Chen, "High spurious free dynamic range fiber link using a semiconductor electroabsorption modulator," Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 902-903, May 1995.

P. L. Liu, B. J. Li, and Y. S. Trisno, "In search of a linear electrooptic amplitude modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 144-146, Feb. 1991.

G. A. Davis, R. E. Weiss, R. A. LaRue, K. J. Williams, and R. D. Esman, "A 920-1650-nm high-current photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1373-1375, Oct. 1996.

K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, "Optically amplified downconverting link with shot-noise-limited performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 148-150, Jan. 1996.

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors with high-saturation power and large bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 1376-1378, Oct. 1996.

C. L. Goldsmith, G. A. Magel, B. M. Kanack, and R. J. Baca, "Coherent combining of RF signals in a traveling-wave photodetector array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 988-990, July 1997.

B. H. Kolner and D. W. Dolfi, "Intermodulation distortion and compression in an integrated electrooptic modulator," Appl. Opt., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 3676-3680, 1987.

C. H. Cox III, G. E. Betts, and L. M. Johnson, "An analytic and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 38, pp. 501-509, May 1990.

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