Abstract

We examine the performance limitations of a fiber optic methane sensor using microoptic GRIN lens cells in either transmission or reflective mode. We derive the worst case values of sensitivity due to interference effects caused by reflections within the cell as a function of the cell parameters. We also show both theoretically and experimentally how the interference signal may be minimized by suitable choice of the amplitude of the wavelength modulation. Although, theoretically, reflective cells could match the performance of transmission cells, in practice, transmission cells are superior in terms of interferometric noise levels.With reflective cells, two secondary reflections from the cell and secondary cavity effects in the system enhance the interference so that in practice their performance is inferior.

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Appl. Opt. (10)

C. B. Carlisle, D. E. Cooper, and H. Preier, "Quantum noise limited FM spectroscopy with a lead salt diode laser," Appl. Opt., vol. 28, pp. 2567-2576, 1989.

J. A. Silver, "Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: Theory and comparison among experimental methods," Appl. Opt., vol. 31, pp. 707-717, 1992.

D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, and J. A. Silver, "Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser," Appl. Opt., vol. 31, pp. 718-731 1992.

K. Uehara and H. Tai, "Remote detection of methane with a 1.66\;\mum diode laser," Appl. Opt., vol. 31, pp. 809-814, 1992.

H. C. Sun, E. A. Whittaker, Y. W. Bae, C. K. Ng, V. Patel, W. H. Tam, S. McGuire, B. Singh, and B. Gallois, "Combined wavelength and frequency modulation spectroscopy: A novel diagnostic tool for materials processing," Appl. Opt., vol. 32, pp. 885-893, 1993.

H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, L. W. Carr, D. E. Cooper, R. U. Martinelli, and R. J. Menna, "Design of an open path near infra-red diode laser sensor: Application to oxygen, water and carbon dioxide vapor detection," Appl. Opt., vol. 33, pp. 7059-7066, 1994.

W. Jin, G. Stewart, W. Philp, and B. Culshaw, "Limitation of absorption based fiber optic gas sensors by coherent reflections," Appl. Opt., vol. 36, pp. 6251-6255, 1997.

V. G. Avetisov and P. Kauranen, "Two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of gaseous species," Appl. Opt., vol. 35, pp. 4705-4723, 1996.

H. C. Sun and E. A. Whittaker, "Novel etalon fringe rejection technique for laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Opt., vol. 31, pp. 4998-5002, 1992.

J. M. Supplee, E. A. Whittaker, and W. Lenth, "Theoretical description of frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopy," Appl. Opt., vol. 33, pp. 6295-6302, 1994.

Opt. Lett. (1)

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