Abstract

This paper investigates the performance of an all-optical method for amplification gain control to be applied in the next generation of optical networks. An erbium-doped fiber amplifier is implemented in a simple and passive all-optical configuration known as optical gain-clamped optical amplifier (OA). The paper investigates the dynamic performance of the OA and discusses the interplay of amplifier dynamics with different traffic statistics. The investigation concerns exhaustive characterization of bit error rate performances under typical optical burst switching (OBS) traffic as well as special case of sudden power variation at the amplifier input. All obtained results show a reduction in the amplifier output power overshot compared to the case where the same OA operates without any gain stabilization technique. As an example, in the typical OBS traffic scenario, a reduction of 3 dB is observed.

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  1. C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).
  2. J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, C. Wolf, R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in optically amplified multiwavelength optical networks," Proc. OFC 1996 ().
  3. A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, R. W. Tkach, "Fast gain control in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier," Proc. Opt. Amplifier Appl. (1996) pp. 1-3.
  4. N. Madamopoulos, D. C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, A. Boskovic, "Study of the performance of a transparent and reconfigurable metropolitan area network," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 937-945 (2002).
  5. M. Zirngibl, "Gain control in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).
  6. K. Ennser, S. Taccheo, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, "Optical stabilization of waveguide amplifiers for WDM ring network with recirculating optical power," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1670-1675 (2007).
  7. G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel, M. A. Ali, "Experimental and theoretical analysis of relaxation-oscillation and spectral hole burning effects in all-optical gain-clamped EDFA's for WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 527-533 (1998).
  8. K. Ennser, S. Taccheo, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, "Efficient erbium-doped waveguide amplifier insensitive to power fluctuations," Opt. Exp. 14, 10307-10312 (2006).
  9. K. Ennser, G. della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Shmulovich, S. Taccheo, "Erbium-doped waveguide amplifier for reconfigurable WDM metro networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468-1470 (2005).
  10. G. Della Valle, A. Festa, S. Taccheo, K. Ennser, J. Aracil, "Nonlinear dynamics induced by burst amplification in optically gain-stabilized erbium-doped amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 32, 903-905 (2007).
  11. S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, A. Festa, K. Ennser, J. Aracil, "Amplification of optical bursts in gain-stabilized erbium-doped optical amplifier," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2007) () pp. 1-3.
  12. X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, C. Qiao, "Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2722-2738 (2004).
  13. X. Yu, Y. Chen, C. Qiao, "Study of traffic statistics of assembled burst traffic in optical burst switched networks," Proc. Opticomm (2002) pp. 149-59.
  14. J. Hernandez, J. Aracil, V. Lopez, J. Lopez de Vergara, "On the analysis of burst-assembly delay in OBS networks and applications in delay-based service differentiation," Photon. Netw. Commun. 14, 49-62 (2007).
  15. M. Izal, J. Aracil, "On the influence of self similarity on optical burst switching traffic," Proc. Globecom 2002 (2002) pp. 2308-2312.
  16. M. Izal, J. Aracil, D. Morató, E. Magaña, "Delay-throughput curves for timer-based obs burstifiers with light load," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 277-285 (2006).
  17. D. Veitch, N. Hohn, P. Abry, "Multifractality in TCP/IP traffic: The case against," Comput. Netw. 48, 293-313 (2005).
  18. P. Barlet, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Barrantes, E. Codina, J. Domingo-Pascual, "SMARTxAC: A passive monitoring and analysis system for high-speed networks," Proc. Terena Netw. Conf. (2006) pp. 1-10.
  19. M. de Vega, S. Spadaro, M.-A. Remiche, D. Careglio, J. Barrantes, J. Götz, "On the statistical nature of highly-aggregated internet traffic," Proc. Int. Workshop Internet Perf., Simul., Monitoring Meas. (2006) pp. 29-39.

2007 (3)

K. Ennser, S. Taccheo, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, "Optical stabilization of waveguide amplifiers for WDM ring network with recirculating optical power," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1670-1675 (2007).

J. Hernandez, J. Aracil, V. Lopez, J. Lopez de Vergara, "On the analysis of burst-assembly delay in OBS networks and applications in delay-based service differentiation," Photon. Netw. Commun. 14, 49-62 (2007).

G. Della Valle, A. Festa, S. Taccheo, K. Ennser, J. Aracil, "Nonlinear dynamics induced by burst amplification in optically gain-stabilized erbium-doped amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 32, 903-905 (2007).

2006 (2)

M. Izal, J. Aracil, D. Morató, E. Magaña, "Delay-throughput curves for timer-based obs burstifiers with light load," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 277-285 (2006).

K. Ennser, S. Taccheo, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, "Efficient erbium-doped waveguide amplifier insensitive to power fluctuations," Opt. Exp. 14, 10307-10312 (2006).

2005 (2)

K. Ennser, G. della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Shmulovich, S. Taccheo, "Erbium-doped waveguide amplifier for reconfigurable WDM metro networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468-1470 (2005).

D. Veitch, N. Hohn, P. Abry, "Multifractality in TCP/IP traffic: The case against," Comput. Netw. 48, 293-313 (2005).

2004 (1)

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, C. Qiao, "Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2722-2738 (2004).

2002 (1)

N. Madamopoulos, D. C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, A. Boskovic, "Study of the performance of a transparent and reconfigurable metropolitan area network," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 937-945 (2002).

1999 (1)

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel, M. A. Ali, "Experimental and theoretical analysis of relaxation-oscillation and spectral hole burning effects in all-optical gain-clamped EDFA's for WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 527-533 (1998).

1991 (1)

M. Zirngibl, "Gain control in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).

Comput. Netw. (1)

D. Veitch, N. Hohn, P. Abry, "Multifractality in TCP/IP traffic: The case against," Comput. Netw. 48, 293-313 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Zirngibl, "Gain control in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop," Electron. Lett. 27, 560-561 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Ennser, G. della Valle, M. Ibsen, J. Shmulovich, S. Taccheo, "Erbium-doped waveguide amplifier for reconfigurable WDM metro networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1468-1470 (2005).

J. High Speed Netw. (1)

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

K. Ennser, S. Taccheo, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, "Optical stabilization of waveguide amplifiers for WDM ring network with recirculating optical power," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1670-1675 (2007).

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel, M. A. Ali, "Experimental and theoretical analysis of relaxation-oscillation and spectral hole burning effects in all-optical gain-clamped EDFA's for WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 527-533 (1998).

N. Madamopoulos, D. C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, A. Boskovic, "Study of the performance of a transparent and reconfigurable metropolitan area network," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 937-945 (2002).

M. Izal, J. Aracil, D. Morató, E. Magaña, "Delay-throughput curves for timer-based obs burstifiers with light load," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 277-285 (2006).

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, C. Qiao, "Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2722-2738 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (1)

K. Ennser, S. Taccheo, T. Rogowski, J. Shmulovich, "Efficient erbium-doped waveguide amplifier insensitive to power fluctuations," Opt. Exp. 14, 10307-10312 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

J. Hernandez, J. Aracil, V. Lopez, J. Lopez de Vergara, "On the analysis of burst-assembly delay in OBS networks and applications in delay-based service differentiation," Photon. Netw. Commun. 14, 49-62 (2007).

Other (7)

M. Izal, J. Aracil, "On the influence of self similarity on optical burst switching traffic," Proc. Globecom 2002 (2002) pp. 2308-2312.

X. Yu, Y. Chen, C. Qiao, "Study of traffic statistics of assembled burst traffic in optical burst switched networks," Proc. Opticomm (2002) pp. 149-59.

P. Barlet, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Barrantes, E. Codina, J. Domingo-Pascual, "SMARTxAC: A passive monitoring and analysis system for high-speed networks," Proc. Terena Netw. Conf. (2006) pp. 1-10.

M. de Vega, S. Spadaro, M.-A. Remiche, D. Careglio, J. Barrantes, J. Götz, "On the statistical nature of highly-aggregated internet traffic," Proc. Int. Workshop Internet Perf., Simul., Monitoring Meas. (2006) pp. 29-39.

J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, C. Wolf, R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in optically amplified multiwavelength optical networks," Proc. OFC 1996 ().

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, R. W. Tkach, "Fast gain control in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier," Proc. Opt. Amplifier Appl. (1996) pp. 1-3.

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, A. Festa, K. Ennser, J. Aracil, "Amplification of optical bursts in gain-stabilized erbium-doped optical amplifier," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2007) () pp. 1-3.

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