Abstract

A novel optical spatial quantized analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented and the performance enhancements through employing this architecture are analyzed theoretically. A high-speed low-jitter ADC sampling clock is provided by a mode-locked laser. A high sampling rate is maintained by avoiding any speed-limiting conversion from optical to electrical domain in an all-optical quantization technique. A high quantization bandwidth is achieved by employing the all-optical quantization technique, benefiting from the high bandwidth characteristics of optical modulation. A high ADC resolution is obtained by using a single-channel quantization configuration and detecting a single image at each sampling step. A high power efficiency is achieved by extracting some portions of the required power from the analog electrical signal and optical sampling clock, directly. Various ADC-resolution limiting factors including the ambiguity of photodetectors, jitter of the optical sampling-clock, the limited beam deflector bandwidth, dispersion, phase modulator nonlinearity/mismatch, noise, and crosstalk have been identified and the contribution of each effect has been discussed.

© 2008 IEEE

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2007 (1)

2005 (3)

S.-I. Oda, A. Maruta, "A novel quantization scheme by slicing a supercontinuum spectrum for all-optical analog-to-digital conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 465-467 (2005).

J. Stigwall, S. Galt, "Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 468-470 (2005).

M. Currie, "Optical quantization of microwave signals via distributed phase modulation," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 827-833 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. Stigwall, S. Galt, S. Hard, "Experimental evaluation of an ultra-fast free space optical analog-to-digital conversion scheme using a tunable semiconductor laser," Photon. Eur. 2004: Metrol., Sens., Biophoton., Proc. SPIE 5466 123-130 (2004).

2001 (3)

P. W. Juodawlkis, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 49, 1840-1840 (2001).

H. Sakata, "Photonic analog-to-digital conversion by use of nonlinear Fabry–Perot resonators," Appl. Opt. 40, 240-248 (2001).

L. Brzozowski, E. H. Sargent, "All-optical analog-to-digital converters, hard limiters, and logic gates," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 114-119 (2001).

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-549 (1999).

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, P. J. Matthews, I. N. Duling, III"Phase noise measurements of ultrastable 10 GHz harmonically mode-locked fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 35, 720-721 (1999).

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

P. E. Pace, D. D. Styer, "High-resolution encoding process for an integrated optical analog-to-digital converter," Opt. Eng. 33, 2638-2645 (1994).

1992 (1)

1979 (1)

H. Taylor, "An optical analog-to-digital converter-design and analysis," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 210-216 (1979).

1977 (1)

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, P. J. Matthews, I. N. Duling, III"Phase noise measurements of ultrastable 10 GHz harmonically mode-locked fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 35, 720-721 (1999).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Currie, "Optical quantization of microwave signals via distributed phase modulation," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 827-833 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Taylor, "An optical analog-to-digital converter-design and analysis," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 210-216 (1979).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-549 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Currie, T. R. Clark, P. J. Mathews, "Photonic analog-to-digital conversion by distributed phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1689-1691 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S.-I. Oda, A. Maruta, "A novel quantization scheme by slicing a supercontinuum spectrum for all-optical analog-to-digital conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 465-467 (2005).

J. Stigwall, S. Galt, "Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 468-470 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 49, 1840-1840 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

L. Brzozowski, E. H. Sargent, "All-optical analog-to-digital converters, hard limiters, and logic gates," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 114-119 (2001).

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. E. Pace, D. D. Styer, "High-resolution encoding process for an integrated optical analog-to-digital converter," Opt. Eng. 33, 2638-2645 (1994).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Eur. 2004: Metrol., Sens., Biophoton., Proc. SPIE 5466 (1)

J. Stigwall, S. Galt, S. Hard, "Experimental evaluation of an ultra-fast free space optical analog-to-digital conversion scheme using a tunable semiconductor laser," Photon. Eur. 2004: Metrol., Sens., Biophoton., Proc. SPIE 5466 123-130 (2004).

Other (10)

C. Pala, L. Thylen, M. Mokhtari, U. Westergren, "A highspeed electro-optical analog-to-digital converter principle," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. pp. 432-435.

H. Zmuda, M. J. Hayduk, R. Bussjager, E. N. Toughlian, Photonics for Space and Radiation Environments II (, 2002) pp. 134-145.

Diffraction, Fourier Optics, and Imaging (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

B. Kleveland, T. H. Lee, S. S. Wong, "50-GHz interconnect design in standard silicon technology," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. (1991) pp. 151-154.

J. T. Gallo, Photonic A/D converter using parallel synchronous quantization of optical signals U.S. Patent 6,188,342 (1998).

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, G. L. P. LiKamWa, "A photonic wideband analog-to-digital converter," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf. (2001) pp. 1461-1472.

M. Jarrahi, R. F. W. Pease, T. H. Lee, "Traveling wave spatial quantized analog-to-digital conversion," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. (2007) pp. 225-228.

M. J. Hayduk, R. J. Bussjager, M. A. Getbehead, "Photonic analog-to-digital conversion techniques using semiconductor saturable absorbers," Enabling Photon. Technol. for Aerosp. Appl. II (2000) pp. 54-60.

L. Y. Nathawad, R. Urata, R. B. A. Wooley, D. A. B. Miller, "A 20 GHz bandwidth, 4b photoconductive-sampling time-interleaved CMOS ADC," IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers (2003).

B. L. Shoop, E. C. Shaffer, G. P. Dudevoir, "Distributed photonic A/D conversion using a neural network, oversampling, and spectral noise shaping," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2001).

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