Abstract

We have compared experimentally the transmission performance of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) with RZ-ON-OFF keying (OOK), nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK), and NRZ-OOK for 100 ×10-Gb/s transmission with a spectral efficiency of 0.22 b/s/Hz over transoceanic distances. The Q degradation of the RZ-DPSK after transmission over 9180 km was 3 dB greater than that of RZ-OOK. The experimental results clearly showed the major cause of degradation for DPSK is not cross-phase modulation but self-phase modulation. The calculated nonlinear phase noise, i.e., the Gordon-Mollenauer effect,agreed with the experimental results. A distributed-Raman-amplifier assisted erbium-doped-fiber-amplified transmission line acted well in reducing the nonlinear phase noise.

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  24. A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold and L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7 Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 99-101, Jan. 2003.
  25. O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, S. Choudhary, G. Castanon, H. Kuwahara, T. Terahara and H. Onaka, "Numerical comparison of NRZ, CS-RZ and IM-DPSK formats in 43 Gbit/s WDM transmission", in Proc. IEEE LEOS 14th Annu. Meeting, 2001, pp. 673-674.
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  32. W. Kaiser, T. Wuth, M. Wichers and W. Rosenkranz, "Reduced complexity optical duobinary 10-Gb/s transmitter setup resulting in an increased transmission distance", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 884 -886, Aug. 2002.
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  35. A. R. Chraplyvy, D. Marcuse and P. S. Henry, "Carrier-induced phase noise in angle-modulated optical-fiber systems", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. LT-2, pp. 6-10, Feb. 1984.
  36. S. Ryu, "Signal linewidth broadening due to nonlinear Kerr effect in long-haul coherent systems using cascaded optical amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1450-1457, Oct. 1992 .
  37. H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100 nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, May 1999.
  38. C. Xu, X. Liu and L. Mollenauer, "Comparison of return-to-zero phase shift keying and on-off keying in long haul dispersion managed transmissions", presented at the OFC 2003 , Atlanta, GA, Paper ThE3, 2003.
  39. J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov and N. S. Bergano, "A DWDM demonstration of 3.73 Tb/s over 11 000 km using 373 RZ-DPSK channels at 10 Gb/s", presented at the OFC 2003 , Atlanta, GA, Paper PD22, 2003.

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

T. Mizuochi, K. Shimizu, K. Shimomura, E. Ishimura, T. Kitayama and K. Ito, "Frequency stabilized 622-Mb/s 16-channel optical FDM system and its performance in 1.3/1.55 µm zero-dispersion fiber transmission", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1937-1947, Oct. 1995.

S. Saito, T. Imai and T. Ito, "An over 2200-km coherent transmission experiment at 2.5 Gb/s using erbium-doped-fiber in-line amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 161-169, Feb. 1991.

S. Ryu, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, N. Edagawa, Y. Yoshida and H. Wakabayashi, "Long-haul coherent optical fiber communication systems using optical amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 251-260, Feb. 1991.

T. Okoshi, "Recent advances in coherent optical fiber communication systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 5, pp. 44-52, Jan. 1987.

R. A. Linke and A. H. Gnauck, "High-capacity coherent lightwave systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 1750-1769, Nov. 1988 .

S. Ryu, "Signal linewidth broadening due to nonlinear Kerr effect in long-haul coherent systems using cascaded optical amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1450-1457, Oct. 1992 .

Other (33)

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100 nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, May 1999.

C. Xu, X. Liu and L. Mollenauer, "Comparison of return-to-zero phase shift keying and on-off keying in long haul dispersion managed transmissions", presented at the OFC 2003 , Atlanta, GA, Paper ThE3, 2003.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov and N. S. Bergano, "A DWDM demonstration of 3.73 Tb/s over 11 000 km using 373 RZ-DPSK channels at 10 Gb/s", presented at the OFC 2003 , Atlanta, GA, Paper PD22, 2003.

A. H. Gnauck, K. C. Reichmann, J. M. Kahn, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka and T. L. Koch, "4-Gb/s heterodyne transmission experiments using OOK, FSK and DPSK modulation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 908-910, Dec. 1990.

T. Chikama, S. Watanabe, T. Naito, H. Onaka, T. Kiyonaga, Y. Onoda, H. Miyata, M. Suyama, M. Seino and H. Kuwahara, "Modulation and demodulation techniques in optical heterodyne PSK transmission systems", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 8, pp. 309-322, Mar. 1990.

R. Noe, E. Meissner, B. Borchcrt and H. Rodler, "Direct modulation 565 Mb/s DPSK experiment with 62.3 dB loss span and endless polarization control", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 1151-1154, Oct. 1992.

R. S. Vodhanel, "5 Gbit/s direct optical DPSK modulation of a 1530-nm DFB laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 218-220, Aug. 1989.

"J. Lightwave Technol. (Special Issue on Coherent Communication)", vol. 5, Apr. 1987.

Y. Yamamoto, "Receiver performance evaluation of various digital optical modulation-demodulation systems in the 0.5-10 µm wavelength region", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, pp. 1251-1259, Nov 1980.

O. K. Tonguz and R. E. Wagner, "Equivalence between preamplified direct detection and heterodyne receivers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 835-837, Sept. 1991.

A. F. Elrefaie and R. E. Wagner, "Chromatic dispersion limitations for FSK and DPSK systems with direct detection receivers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 71-73, Jan. 1991.

E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas, R. S. Bondurant and T. J. Paul, "Optically preamplified 3 Gb/s DPSK receiver with 80 photon/bit sensitivity", presented at the OFC 1993, San Jose, CA, Paper PD29, 1993.

E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas and R. S. Bondurant, "High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 263-265, Feb. 1994.

S. R. Chinn, D. M. Boroson and J. C. Livas, "Sensitivity of optically preamplified DPSK receivers with Fabry-Pérot filters", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 14, pp. 370-376, Mar. 1996.

T. Miyano, M. Fukutoku, K. Hattori and H. Ono, "Suppression of degradation induced by SPM/XPM+GVD in WDM transmission using a bit-synchronous intensity modulated DPSK signal", presented at the OECC 2000, Makuhari, Japan,Paper 14D3-3, 2000.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei and D. M. Gill, "2.5 tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40× 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-raman-amplified spans", presented at the OFC 2002 , Anaheim, CA, Paper PD-FC2, 2002.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, A. H. Gnauck, M. O. Pedersen, D. Peckham, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, S. Kado, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. L. LingleJr, S. Knudsen, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Baynham, P. Gaarde, Y. Emori and S. Namiki, "Transmission of 3.2 Tb/s (80 × 42.7 Gb/s) over 5200 km of ultrawave™ fiber with 100-km dispersion-managed spans using RZ-DPSK format", presented at the ECOC 2002 , Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper PD4.2, 2002.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin and P. Reeves-Hall, "DWDM 40 G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10, 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100 km ultrawave™ fiber spans", presented at the OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Paper PD18, 2003.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stultz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. LingleJr, Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri and S. Namiki, "6.4-Tb/s (160 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32× 100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format", presented at the OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Paper PD19, 2003.

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi and N. Edagawa, "70 Ghz-spaced 40 × 42.7 Gbit/s transmission over 8700 km using CS-RZ DPSK signal, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber span", presented at the OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Paper PD23, 2003.

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver", in Proc. IEEE LEOS 12th Annu. Meeting, 1999, pp. 226-227.

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold and L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7 Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 99-101, Jan. 2003.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, S. Choudhary, G. Castanon, H. Kuwahara, T. Terahara and H. Onaka, "Numerical comparison of NRZ, CS-RZ and IM-DPSK formats in 43 Gbit/s WDM transmission", in Proc. IEEE LEOS 14th Annu. Meeting, 2001, pp. 673-674.

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers", Opt. Lett. , vol. 15, no. 23, pp. 1351-1353, Dec. 1990.

X. Liu, C. Xu and X. Wei, "Nonlinear phase noise in pulse-overlapped transmission based on return-to-zero differential-phase-shift-keying", presented at the ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 9.6.5, 2002 .

H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 320 -322, Feb. 2003.

P. S. Cho, V. S. Grigoryan, N. Reingand and I. Shpantzer, "Optical differential binary phase shift keying of return-to-zero pulses for long-haul DWDM transmission systems", presented at the OECC 2002, Yokohama, Japan, Paper PD-1-7, 2002.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurement in optical amplifier system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 304-306, Mar. 1993.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara and Y. Tada, "Carrier-suppressed differential phase shift keying format for ultra-high-speed channel transmission", presented at the OAA 2002, Vancouver, BC, Canada,Paper OTuB2, 2002 .

W. Kaiser, T. Wuth, M. Wichers and W. Rosenkranz, "Reduced complexity optical duobinary 10-Gb/s transmitter setup resulting in an increased transmission distance", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 884 -886, Aug. 2002.

A. Hirano, Y. Miyamoto and S. Kuwahara, "Performance of CSRZ-DPSK and RZ-DPSK in 43-Gbit/s/ch DWDM G.652 single-mode-fiber transmission", presented at the OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Paper ThE4, 2003.

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, K. Kinjo, T. Kobayashi, S. Kajiya, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, K. Motoshima and K. Kasahara, "1.7 Tb/s (85 × 22.8 Gb/s) transmission over 9,180 km using symmetrically collided transmission methodology", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1264-1265, Oct. 2002 .

A. R. Chraplyvy, D. Marcuse and P. S. Henry, "Carrier-induced phase noise in angle-modulated optical-fiber systems", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. LT-2, pp. 6-10, Feb. 1984.

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