Abstract

Ultra-wide-band analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion is one of the most critical problems faced in communication, instrumentation, and radar systems. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the recently proposed time-stretched A/D converter. By reducing the signal bandwidth prior to digitization,this technique offers revolutionary enhancements in the performance of electronic converters. The paper starts with a fundamental-physics analysis of the time-wavelength transformation and the implication of time dilation on the signal-to-noise ratio. A detailed mathematical description of the time-stretch process is then constructed. It elucidates the influence of linear and nonlinear optical dispersion on the fidelity of the electrical signal. Design issues of a single-sideband time-stretch system, as they relate to broad-band operation, are examined. Problems arising from the nonuniform optical power spectral density are explained,and two methods for overcoming them are described. As proof of the concept,120 GSa/s real-time digitization of a 20-GHz signal is demonstrated. Finally,design issues and performance features of a continuous-time time-stretch system are discussed.

© 2003 IEEE

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  2. R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 17, pp. 539-550, Apr. 1999.
  3. W. C. Black and D. A. Hodges, "Time interleaved converter arrays", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-15, pp. 1022-1029, Dec. 1980.
  4. A. Montijo and K. Rush, "Accuracy in interleaved ADC systems", Hewlett-Packard J., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 38-46, Oct. 1993.
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  6. B. Jalali and F. Coppinger, "Data conversion using time manipulation", U.S. Patent 6 288 659, Sept. 11, 2001 .
  7. F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan and B. Jalali, "Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 47, pp. 1309-1314, July 1999.
  8. Y. Han, B. Rezaei, V. P. Roychowdhury and B. Jalali, "Adaptive online calibration in time stretched ADC arrays", in Proc. Instrumentation Measurement Technology Conf., vol. 2, 2003, pp. 1212-1216.
  9. A. S. Bhushan, P. V. Kelkar, B. Jalali, O. Boyraz and M. Islam, "130 GSa/s photonic analog-to-digital converter with time stretch preprocessor", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 684-686, May 2002.
  10. O. Boyraz, J. Kim, M. N. Islam, F. Coppinger and B. Jalali, "Broadband, high-brightness 10-Gbit/s supercontinuum source for A/D conversion", in Proc. Lasers Electro-Optics Conf., 2000, pp. 489-490.
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  27. Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Differential photonic time stretch analog-to-digital converter", presented at the Lasers and Electro-Optics Conf., Baltimore, MD, Paper CWH2, June 1-6 , 2003.
  28. J. C. Twichell and R. Helkey, "Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1237 -1239, Sept. 2000.
  29. J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms, and Applications , 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996.
  30. B. Jalali, P. Kelkar and V. Saxena, "Photonic arbitrary waveform generator", in Proc. 14th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Society, vol. 1, 2001, pp. 253-254.
  31. J. Chou, Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator", in Proc. Microwave Photonics Conf., 2002, Paper T2-1,. pp. 93-96.

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Dubovitsky, W. H. Steier, S. Yegnanarayanan and B. Jalali, "Analysis and improvement of Mach-Zehnder modulator linearity performance for chirped and tunable optical carriers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 886-891, May 2002.

O. Boyraz, J. Kim, M. N. Islam, F. Coppinger and B. Jalali, "10 Gb/s multiple wavelength, coherent short pulse source based on spectral carving of supercontinuum generated in fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 2167-2175, Dec. 2000 .

Other (29)

K. Yonenaga and N. Takachio, "A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 949 -951, Aug. 1993.

J. Park, W. V. Sorin and K. Y. Lau, "Elimination of the fiber chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 512-513, Mar. 1997.

K. Chang, I. Bahl and V. Nair, RF and Microwave Circuit and Component Design for Wireless Systems, New York: Wiley, 2002.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota and E. Yoshida, "Coherence degradation in the process of supercontinuum generation in an optical fiber", Optical Fiber Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 215-223, 1998.

Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Differential photonic time stretch analog-to-digital converter", presented at the Lasers and Electro-Optics Conf., Baltimore, MD, Paper CWH2, June 1-6 , 2003.

J. C. Twichell and R. Helkey, "Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1237 -1239, Sept. 2000.

J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms, and Applications , 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996.

B. Jalali, P. Kelkar and V. Saxena, "Photonic arbitrary waveform generator", in Proc. 14th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Society, vol. 1, 2001, pp. 253-254.

J. Chou, Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator", in Proc. Microwave Photonics Conf., 2002, Paper T2-1,. pp. 93-96.

J. A. Wepman, "Analog-to-digital converters and their applications in radio receivers", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 33, pp. 39-45, May 1995.

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 17, pp. 539-550, Apr. 1999.

W. C. Black and D. A. Hodges, "Time interleaved converter arrays", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-15, pp. 1022-1029, Dec. 1980.

A. Montijo and K. Rush, "Accuracy in interleaved ADC systems", Hewlett-Packard J., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 38-46, Oct. 1993.

W. J. Caputi, "Stretch: A time-transformation technique", IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. AES-7, pp. 269 -278, Mar. 1971.

B. Jalali and F. Coppinger, "Data conversion using time manipulation", U.S. Patent 6 288 659, Sept. 11, 2001 .

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan and B. Jalali, "Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 47, pp. 1309-1314, July 1999.

Y. Han, B. Rezaei, V. P. Roychowdhury and B. Jalali, "Adaptive online calibration in time stretched ADC arrays", in Proc. Instrumentation Measurement Technology Conf., vol. 2, 2003, pp. 1212-1216.

A. S. Bhushan, P. V. Kelkar, B. Jalali, O. Boyraz and M. Islam, "130 GSa/s photonic analog-to-digital converter with time stretch preprocessor", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 684-686, May 2002.

O. Boyraz, J. Kim, M. N. Islam, F. Coppinger and B. Jalali, "Broadband, high-brightness 10-Gbit/s supercontinuum source for A/D conversion", in Proc. Lasers Electro-Optics Conf., 2000, pp. 489-490.

B. H. Kolner and M. Nazarathy, "Temporal imaging with a time lens", Opt. Lett., vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 630-632, June 1989.

B. Asuri, Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Time-stretched ADC arrays", IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, vol. 49, pp. 521-524, July 2002.

E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, "RF fiber-optic link performance", IEEE Microwave, vol. 2, pp. 50-58, Dec. 2001.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks, 2nd ed. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001, ch. 3.

H. Schmuck, "Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 21, pp. 1848-1849, Oct. 1995.

J. M. Fuster, D. Novak, A. Nirmalathas and J. Marti, "Single-sideband modulation in photonic time-stretch analogue-to-digital conversion", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 67-68, Jan. 2001.

Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Time-bandwidth product of the photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 51, pp. 1886-1892, July 2003.

A. Hilt, "Microwave harmonic generation in fiber-optical links", in Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Microwaves, Radar Wireless Communications, vol. 2, 2000, pp. 693-698.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak and Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 74-75, Jan. 1997.

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