Abstract

We report a simple and compact design of a dispersion compensated mode-locked Yb:fiber oscillator based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). The fully polarization maintaining (PM) fiber integrated laser features a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) for dispersion compensation and a fiber integrated compact non-reciprocal phase bias device, which is alignment-free. The main design parameters were determined by numerically simulating the pulse evolution in the oscillator and by analyzing their impact on the laser performance. Experimentally, we achieved an 88 fs compressed pulse duration with sub-fs timing jitter at 54 MHz repetition rate and 51 mW of output power with $5.5\times 10^{-5}$ [20 Hz, 1 MHz] integrated relative intensity noise (RIN). Furthermore, we demonstrate tight phase-locking of the laser's carrier-envelope offset frequency ( $f_{\text{ceo}}$ ) to a stable radio frequency (RF) reference and of one frequency comb tooth to a stable optical reference at 291 THz.

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2020 (2)

M. Müller, “10.4 kW coherently combined ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 3083–3086, 2020, doi: .
[Crossref]

A. S. Mayer, “Flexible all-PM NALM Yb:fiber laser design for frequency comb applications: Operation regimes and their noise properties,” Opt. Exp., vol. 28, no. 13, pp. 18946–18968, 2020, doi: .
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

Y. Wang, “Timing jitter reduction through relative intensity noise suppression in high-repetition-rate mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express, vol. 27, no. 8, 2019, Art. no. , doi: .
[Crossref]

G. Palmer, “Pump-probe laser system at the FXE and SPB/SFX instruments of the european X-ray free-electron laser facility,” J. Synchrotron Radiat., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 328–332, 2019, doi: .
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

G. Liu, X. Jiang, A. Wang, G. Chang, F. Kaertner, and Z. Zhang, “Robust 700 MHz mode-locked Yb:fiber laser with a biased nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 26003–26008, 2018, doi: .
[Crossref]

W. Liu, “Single-polarization large-mode-area fiber laser mode-locked with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Lett., vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 2848–2851, 2018, doi: .
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

Y. Li, N. Kuse, A. Rolland, Y. Stepanenko, C. Radzewicz, and M. E. Fermann, “Low noise, self-referenced all polarization maintaining Ytterbium fiber laser frequency comb,” Opt. Exp., vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 18017–18023, 2017, doi: .
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 123, no. 1, 2017, doi: .
[Crossref]

D. Kim, “Intensity noise suppression in mode-locked fiber lasers by double optical bandpass filtering,” Opt. Lett., vol. 42, no. 20, Art. no.4095, 2017, doi: .
[Crossref]

A. D. Brandt, S. F. Cooper, Z. Burkley, and D. C. Yost, “Reduced phase noise in an erbium frequency comb via intensity noise suppression,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 15, Art. no.18175, 2017, doi: .
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

J. Kim and Y. Song, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked fiber lasers and frequency combs: Principles, status, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 465–540, 2016, doi: .
[Crossref]

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM fiber laser mode locked with a compact phase biased amplifier loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 1786–1789, 2016, doi: .
[Crossref]

M. Lezius, “Space-borne frequency comb metrology,” Optica, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1381–1387, 2016, doi: .
[Crossref]

B. Spaun, “Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature, vol. 533, no. 7604, pp. 517–520, 2016, doi: .
[Crossref]

N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 3095–3102, 2016, doi: .
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2013 (3)

M. Krebs, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photon., vol. 7, no. 7, Art. no. , 2013, doi: .
[Crossref]

S.-W. Huang, E. Granados, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “High conversion efficiency, high energy terahertz pulses by optical rectification in cryogenically cooled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett., vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 796–798, 2013, doi: .
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photon., vol. 7, no. 11, Art. no. , 2013, doi: .
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, M. Erkintalo, J. S. Y. Chen, and V. Kruglov, “Mode-locked femtosecond all-normal all-PM Yb-doped fiber laser using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 10545–10551, 2012, doi: .
[Crossref]

A. Cingöz, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature, vol. 482, no. 7383, pp. 68–71, 2012, doi: .
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

T. C. Briles, D. C. Yost, A. Cingöz, J. Ye, and T. R. Schibli, “Simple piezoelectric-actuated mirror with 180 kHz servo bandwidth,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 9739–9746, 2010, doi: .
[Crossref]

P. Russbueldt, T. Mans, J. Weitenberg, H. D. Hoffmann, and R. Poprawe, “Compact diode-pumped 1.1 kW Yb:YAG Innoslab femtosecond amplifier,” Opt. Lett., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 4169–4171, 2010, doi: .
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 18, pp. 8160–8167, 2006, doi: .
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): Timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 163–173, 2004, doi: .
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1994 (1)

H. Lin, D. K. Donald, and W. V. Sorin, “Optimizing polarization states in a figure-8 laser using a nonreciprocal phase shifter,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1121–1128, 1994, doi: .
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

I. N. Duling, “Subpicosecond all-fibre erbium laser,” Electron. Lett., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 544–545, 1991, doi: .
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

Aguergaray, C.

C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, M. Erkintalo, J. S. Y. Chen, and V. Kruglov, “Mode-locked femtosecond all-normal all-PM Yb-doped fiber laser using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 10545–10551, 2012, doi: .
[Crossref]

Andrejco, M.

J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 18, pp. 8160–8167, 2006, doi: .
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

Beye, M.

M. Beye, “FLASH2020+: Mak. FLASH brighter, faster and more flexible: Conceptual Des. Rep.,” Hamburg: Verlag Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 2020. doi: .

Brandt, A. D.

Briles, T. C.

T. C. Briles, D. C. Yost, A. Cingöz, J. Ye, and T. R. Schibli, “Simple piezoelectric-actuated mirror with 180 kHz servo bandwidth,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 9739–9746, 2010, doi: .
[Crossref]

Broderick, N. G. R.

C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, M. Erkintalo, J. S. Y. Chen, and V. Kruglov, “Mode-locked femtosecond all-normal all-PM Yb-doped fiber laser using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 10545–10551, 2012, doi: .
[Crossref]

Burkley, Z.

Chang, G.

G. Liu, X. Jiang, A. Wang, G. Chang, F. Kaertner, and Z. Zhang, “Robust 700 MHz mode-locked Yb:fiber laser with a biased nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 26003–26008, 2018, doi: .
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, J. S. Y.

C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, M. Erkintalo, J. S. Y. Chen, and V. Kruglov, “Mode-locked femtosecond all-normal all-PM Yb-doped fiber laser using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 10545–10551, 2012, doi: .
[Crossref]

Cingöz, A.

A. Cingöz, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature, vol. 482, no. 7383, pp. 68–71, 2012, doi: .
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, D. C. Yost, A. Cingöz, J. Ye, and T. R. Schibli, “Simple piezoelectric-actuated mirror with 180 kHz servo bandwidth,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 9739–9746, 2010, doi: .
[Crossref]

Coddington, I.

Cooper, S. F.

Cox, J.

Cox, J. A.

J. A. Cox, “Sub-femtosecond precision timing distribution, synchronization and coherent synthesis of ultrafast lasers,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2012.

Cui, Y.

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM fiber laser mode locked with a compact phase biased amplifier loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 1786–1789, 2016, doi: .
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

Diddams, S. A.

Donald, D. K.

H. Lin, D. K. Donald, and W. V. Sorin, “Optimizing polarization states in a figure-8 laser using a nonreciprocal phase shifter,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1121–1128, 1994, doi: .
[Crossref]

Duling, I. N.

I. N. Duling, “Subpicosecond all-fibre erbium laser,” Electron. Lett., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 544–545, 1991, doi: .
[Crossref]

Edelmann, M.

M. Edelmann, Y. Hua, K. Safak, and F. X. Kärtner, “Intrinsic amplitude-noise suppression in fiber lasers mode-locked with nonlinear amplifying loop mirrors,” Accessed: Nov.21, 2020. [Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/2010.13824

Erkintalo, M.

C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, M. Erkintalo, J. S. Y. Chen, and V. Kruglov, “Mode-locked femtosecond all-normal all-PM Yb-doped fiber laser using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 10545–10551, 2012, doi: .
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

Y. Li, N. Kuse, A. Rolland, Y. Stepanenko, C. Radzewicz, and M. E. Fermann, “Low noise, self-referenced all polarization maintaining Ytterbium fiber laser frequency comb,” Opt. Exp., vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 18017–18023, 2017, doi: .
[Crossref]

N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 3095–3102, 2016, doi: .
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photon., vol. 7, no. 11, Art. no. , 2013, doi: .
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, F. Haberl, M. Hofer, and H. Hochreiter, “Nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Lett., vol. 15, no. 13, pp. 752–754, 1990, doi: .
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “Electro-optic modulator for rapid control of the carrier-envelope offset frequency,” in San Jose, California: CLEO, 2017, Art. no. SF1C.5, doi: .

Gandhi, H. H.

Giorgetta, F. R.

Giunta, M.

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “Electro-optic modulator for rapid control of the carrier-envelope offset frequency,” in San Jose, California: CLEO, 2017, Art. no. SF1C.5, doi: .

Granados, E.

Haberl, F.

Hall, J.

J. Hall and M. Zhu, “An Introduction to Phase-Stable Optical Sources,” in Laser Manipulation of At. and Ions, Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier Science Ltd, 1992, p. 671.

Hänsel, W.

W. Hänsel, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 123, no. 1, 2017, doi: .
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “Electro-optic modulator for rapid control of the carrier-envelope offset frequency,” in San Jose, California: CLEO, 2017, Art. no. SF1C.5, doi: .

Hartl, I.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photon., vol. 7, no. 11, Art. no. , 2013, doi: .
[Crossref]

I. Hartl, “Self-referenced fCEO stabilization of a low noise femtosecond fiber oscillator,” in San Jose, California: CLEO, 2008, Art. no.CTuC 4., [Online]. Available: http://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2008-CTuC4

Hochreiter, H.

Hofer, M.

Hoffmann, H. D.

Holman, K. W.

Holzwarth, R.

W. Hänsel, M. Giunta, M. Lezius, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “Electro-optic modulator for rapid control of the carrier-envelope offset frequency,” in San Jose, California: CLEO, 2017, Art. no. SF1C.5, doi: .

Hong, K.-H.

Hua, Y.

M. Edelmann, Y. Hua, K. Safak, and F. X. Kärtner, “Intrinsic amplitude-noise suppression in fiber lasers mode-locked with nonlinear amplifying loop mirrors,” Accessed: Nov.21, 2020. [Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/2010.13824

Huang, S.-W.

Huang, W. R.

Hudson, D. D.

Jiang, J.

N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 3095–3102, 2016, doi: .
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM fiber laser mode locked with a compact phase biased amplifier loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 1786–1789, 2016, doi: .
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

G. Liu, X. Jiang, A. Wang, G. Chang, F. Kaertner, and Z. Zhang, “Robust 700 MHz mode-locked Yb:fiber laser with a biased nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 26003–26008, 2018, doi: .
[Crossref]

Johnson, T. A.

Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

Kaertner, F.

G. Liu, X. Jiang, A. Wang, G. Chang, F. Kaertner, and Z. Zhang, “Robust 700 MHz mode-locked Yb:fiber laser with a biased nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 26003–26008, 2018, doi: .
[Crossref]

Kardas, T. M.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kim, D.

Kim, J.

Kobayashi, Y.

Krebs, M.

M. Krebs, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photon., vol. 7, no. 7, Art. no. , 2013, doi: .
[Crossref]

Kruglov, V.

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N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 3095–3102, 2016, doi: .
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N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 3095–3102, 2016, doi: .
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T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM fiber laser mode locked with a compact phase biased amplifier loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 1786–1789, 2016, doi: .
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Y. Li, N. Kuse, A. Rolland, Y. Stepanenko, C. Radzewicz, and M. E. Fermann, “Low noise, self-referenced all polarization maintaining Ytterbium fiber laser frequency comb,” Opt. Exp., vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 18017–18023, 2017, doi: .
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J. Szczepanek, T. M. Kardaś, M. Michalska, C. Radzewicz, and Y. Stepanenko, “Simple all-PM-fiber laser mode-locked with a nonlinear loop mirror,” Opt. Lett., vol. 40, no. 15, pp. 3500–3503, 2015, doi: .
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Y. Li, N. Kuse, A. Rolland, Y. Stepanenko, C. Radzewicz, and M. E. Fermann, “Low noise, self-referenced all polarization maintaining Ytterbium fiber laser frequency comb,” Opt. Exp., vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 18017–18023, 2017, doi: .
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N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Exp., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 3095–3102, 2016, doi: .
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H. Lin, D. K. Donald, and W. V. Sorin, “Optimizing polarization states in a figure-8 laser using a nonreciprocal phase shifter,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1121–1128, 1994, doi: .
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J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 18, pp. 8160–8167, 2006, doi: .
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